HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON PEACE AND WAR
Wayne Osborn 637 Ross Hall Hours:
Materials for Purchase:
TT 3:40-5:00 in Phone: 4-6306
Duane L. Cady, From Warism to Pacifism: A Moral Continuum. Temple, 1989.
John Galtung, Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict Development and Civilization. International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 1996.
B. Readings Purchase at PRINTS [across from DaVincils]
1. Graham Kemp, "Nonviolence: A Biological Perspective," in Chadwick Alger and Michael Stoho, eds. A Just Peace Through Transformation: Cultural- Economic, and Political Foundations for Change, pp. 112-126. Boulder, 1988.
Thomas Gregor and Clayton A. Robarchek, "Two Paths to Peace: Semai and Mehinaku Nonviolence," in Thomas Gregor, ed., A Natural- History of Peace. Nashville and London: Vanderbilt University Press.
Karl G. Heider. Grand Valley Dani: Peaceful Warriors. New York, 1979. [excerpt]
David Little, "The Just-War Tradition and the Pursuit of Peace," in Charles D. Smith, ed., The Hundred Percent Challenge. Washington, D. C. 1985.
5. John Keegan, "Agincourt, October 25, 1415,11 The Face of Battle, New York, 1976.
6. Joycelyne G. Russell, "Peacemaking in the Renaissance," Philadelphia, 1986.
7. Gwyunne Dyer, "The Road to Mass Warfare," War, 1985.
8. Glenn D. Paige, "Gandhi's Contribution to Global Nonviolent Awakening," unpublished paper, prepared for 3rd annual Gandhi Memorial Lecture, New Delhi, India, October 26, 1990.
Gene Sharp, "Civilian-Based Defense: Making the Abolition of
War A Realistic Goal.11 New York: World Policy Instituted,
10. Richard A. Gabriel, "The Face of Modern War," The Painful Field: The Psychiatric Dimension of Modern War. Greenwood Press, 1988.
11. Robert L. O'Connell, "Conclusion: The Horseman's Fall," from Ride of the Second Horseman: The birth and Death of War. oxford, 1995,
Roland Bainton, Christian Attitudes Toward War and Peace: A
Historical Survey and Critical Re-evaluation. New York, 1960.
Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological cost of
Learning to Kill in War and Society-, Boston: Little, Brown,
& Company, 1995.
COURSE TOPICS, READINGS, ACTIVITIES:
I. Introduction: [Aug 24-28] First Week
Topics: Defining Terms: Peace, War, Aggression, etc.
Reading Scan Books and Reading Packet for Insight into themes and topics for this course
II. Roots and Origins of War Processes and Peace Concerns from
10,000 B.C.- 1492. [Aug.31-Sept. 25] Second through the
Topics: Peace and "War" in Pre-Civilized Societies and Ancient Civilizations of Greece and Rome; Evolution of Just War Theory from Ancient Greece to Medieval Europe; Shift in Christian Attitudes Toward Peace and War; Military Innovations in Weapons and Applications From the Trojan Wars through the Crusades.
Readings: Kemp, "Nonviolence ... ;" Heider, Grand Valley
Dani; Gregor, "Two Paths to Peace;" Little, Just War
Tradition; Galtung, "Introduction," & "Part I: Peace Theory;"
and Cady, Chapters, I, II, & V.
Nb. Paper Assignment No. One: September 10
The Semai of Malaysia and the Mehinaku of Brazil live in
essentially peaceful societies. In a five to six page paper
discuss the basis for peace in these two groups, noting
similarities and contrasts, make a choice of which group you
would select to live with and explain your selection, and
comment on what these groups seem to reveal about the
possibilities of nonviolent human existence.
Papers are due at the beginning of class on Thursday,
September 10, when they will be discussed. Five to six
printed pages, doubled spaced, should be the approximate
length. A total of 50 pts. can be earned (10 pt. deduction for late submissions.)
FIRST EXAMINATION THURSDAY SEPTEMBER 29
This exam will be based on readings, class discussions and lectures to this point in the course. (100 pts.)
III. Peace Concerns and War Processes in the Early Modern
European Era, ca. 1400-1815 [Oct. I- Oct 22]
Topics: Peace Plans; Peace and War in Art and Literature; Innovations in Weapons and Applications: Battle of Agincourt. Evolution of War from Wars of Religion to Napoleon.
Readings: Russell. "Peacemaking in the Renaissance, Dwyer, "The Road to Mass Warfare."
III & IV.
Paper Assignment No. Two:
Prepare a five to six page printed paper on what Keegan's description of the battle of Agincourt reveals about: a) causes of the conflict b) nature of military technology and battles at this point in the history of western Europe and c) the application of any aspects of just war standards to this conflict. Due in Class on Thursday, October 15 at which time they will provide the basis for discussion. (50 pts.) (10 pt. deduction for late submissions)
IV. Point and Counterpoint: Total War Vs.
Total Peace: (Oct. 27-Nov. 17]
Topics: Industrial Revolution and Military Technology transformation; International Peace Movements and roots of International organizations; Theory and History of nonviolence.
Readings: Galtung, Parts II and III; Cady, Chaps. III,IV, V & VI; Paige, "Gandhi's Contribution... and Sharp, "Civilian- Based Defense."
Second Hour Examination: November 19
V. Prospects for Peace and Global Security:
Topic: Prospects for Peace within the human
Readings: Gabriel, "The Face of Modern War;" O'Connell, "Conclusion: The Horseman' Fall., And Galtung, Part IV: Civilization Theory and Conclusion.
Write an eight to ten page paper assessing
1. the factors and historical changes that are threatening to make "War" an increasingly obsolete mechanism of dealing with power conflicts among human groups enter the twenty first century,
2. and discussing the pro-active approaches and actions suggested by Galtung which might speed that process, and thereby, cause the permanent retirement of the Second Horseman as a scourge to future generations.
Any of the material and topics read or discussed in this course may be used for this project, but particularly recommended are the readings listed under number V.
This project will be worth 100 pts. and will constitute both the a final paper and the final exam. With that in mind, start working on the project early on. Don't wait until dead week and expect to be able to produce a quality paper and exam.
We will meet during the regularly scheduled period for the final exam for this course at which time your papers may be picked'up. This is optional: i.e. you can choose to come or not, but I will be there.
8-10 page printed paper, dbl. spaced, due December 10, 1998. 100 pts.]
Summary of Course Requirements and Activities with Dates:
1. Attendance is expected for class participation and excessive absences will influence your final evaluation up to a maximum deduction of -20 pts.
2. First paper on nonviolent and peaceful human groups. See
instructions above. Due Sept. 10. 50
3. First hour Examination: Sept. 29.
4. Second paper on battle of Agincourt based on Keegan's study.
see instructions above. Due October 15. 50
5. Second Hour Examination, Nov. 12. 100
6. Final Paper/Exam: Due December 10, 1998
Total Point Base..
.... * 400
NB Extra credit may be earned by attending related campus lectures and writing a summary of the presentations. You may attend a maximum of five lectures, with each worth a total of four points for a total of 20 possible points. I will announce lectures as they are coming up or check with me to see if one you have heard about any lectures which might be appropriate for this course.
Basic Questions to Think About in the Context of this
Why do humans practice violence against members within their own species? Why have some societies been more violent than others?
2. What factors contribute to periods of sustained peace
among modern polities. What factors create sustained wars
on the global scale in the modern era? How can the factors
which favor peace be enhanced and those which support war be
Are we on the eve of an era of sustained peace or not?
4. What is nonviolent action, what historical examples exist that demonstrate the power of this strategy, to what extent do you follow those strategies in your own life?
can individuals influence the course of historic change?