Lecture Notes and Discussion Questions
Questions for readings on domestic violence
1. According to Ann Jones, "Battering Who's Going to Stop It?" What are some of the effects or statistics regarding injuries to women?
2. According to Ann Jones, "Battering Who's Going to Stop It?" How can we help women get free of violence?
3. In the poem "The Club" by Mitsuye Yamada, What does the statue of the Japanese woman represent?
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
THE GLOBAL SEX TRADE
Topics for today:
1) military violence against women
-- rape, sexual assault, & murder of
women and children during war
-- sexual enslavement of women incomfort stations
2) the sex trade
-- sex tourism
-- prostitution around US military bases
-- migrant women forced into prostitution
-- mail-order bridesMILITARY VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
PLATFORM FOR ACTION
(1995 United Nation's 4th World Conference on Women, Beijing):
While entire communities suffer the consequences of armed conflict and terrorism, women and girls are particularly affected because of their status in society and their sex. Parties to conflict often rape women with impunity, sometimes using systematic rape as a tactic of war and terrorism. The impact of violence against women and violation of human rights of women in such situations is experienced by women of all ages, who suffer displacement, loss of home and property, loss or involuntary disappearance of close relatives, poverty and family separation and disintegration, and who are victims of acts of murder, terrorism, torture, involuntary disappearance, sexual slavery, rape, sexual abuse and forced pregnancy in situations of armed conflict, especially as a result of policies of ethnic cleansing and other new and emerging forms of violence. This is compounded by the life-long social, economic and psychologically traumatic consequences of armed conflict and foreign occupation and alien domination.
MILITARY VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Such acts of violence are perpetrated:
1) to humiliate the women themselves
2) to humiliate their men, who are supposed to protect them
3) as attack on national identity (b/c women are the mothers of the nation & guardians of its traditions and morals;
due to their roles as mothers)
4) due to objectification of theother THE SEX TRADE
Sex trafficking includes all acts involved in the recruitment and/or transport of a person within and across national borders to gratify the sexual desires of others.
Further, sex trafficking is accomplished by means of direct or indirect violence or threat of violence, abuse of authority or dominant position, debt-bondage, deception, or other forms of coercion.
Much of the trade originates in the U.S.GI TOWNS
prostitution and US military bases
eg: South Korea
currently 27 GI Towns
A. why become prostitutes?
-- similar to Thai example
-- Korea patrilineal, patriarchal,
--hi value on virginity
--honor and shame
--families reject women who are
survivors of rape, incest or domestic violence
-- many were raped (some by GIs) & couldn’t go home
B. Amerasian children
--mother and children outcasts
-- children have no country, no legal rights, no access to education
-- so end up in prostitution, too
C. GI Towns can=t exist without
support of BOTH the South Korean
and U.S. governments
eg: American Town in Kunsan
eg: GI Town outside gates of
Sexual servitude can be found here in the U.S., too
eg: migrants from former Soviet Union
Sex Tours to the 3rd World operate out of the U.S.
Promote myth that
Exotic oriental women are thrilled to meet American men, and know how to please and serve them.1
One brochure reads:
Had enough of American bitches who won't give you the time of day, and are only interested in your bank account? In Asia you=ll meet girls who will treat you with respect and appreciation, unlike their American counterparts.2
1(Goodwin, The Ultimate Growth Industry p.538)
2(Goodwin, The Ultimate Growth Industry p.539)
To succeed, sex tourism requires:
1) Third World women to be economically desperate enough to enter prostitution
2) men from affluent societies to objectify & stereotype certain women as more available and submissive than women
in their own countries
3) an alliance between local governments in search of foreign $ and foreign businessmen willing to inves
Common elements in these forms of violence against women:
1) complex inequalities of gender, race, ethnicity, and class as well as inequalities between nations
2) global capitalist system and the central role of the military in the operations of that system
3) patriarchal values promoted by militarism esp. the social construction of hyper-masculinity
Organizing for Change
A. International legal and policy frameworks
--Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
--1993 UN World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna
1st time rape declared a war crime
B. Strengthening existing international grassroots movements and building others feminist orgs. in Thailand, South Korea
& Philippines making alliances w/ women in Europe, North America, & Japan
Human Rights Watch
Global Survival Network (Washington, D.C.)
Gabriela -- alliance of 105 women=s orgs. in Philippines; represents the Lolas http://www.gabnet.org APWAN (The Asia-Pacific Women=s Action Network) Empower -- a Thai women's org.
Friends of Women -- Thai women's org.
HELP -- a shelter for abused migrant women workers in Tokyo
HOMEWORK FOR NEXT MONDAY:
worth 2 points
2-3 pages, typed
Discuss and analyze Maria’s relationships with the men in her life.
Choose 1 or 2 (individual or groups of) men from Maria’s life to focus on in your discussion.
Eg: Maria’s father
the other soldiers
Discussion Questions: Comfort Women
Discussion Questions: Comfort Woman and "War and Remembrance"
How were women's bodies treated as objects in Comfort Women?
What did Maria’s body represent?
What do you think about the relationship between Tanak and Maria?
What do you think about the relationship between Maria and her husband?
What do you think about the way Maria was able to forgive?
Did Maria have any other choice then to forgive?
Why do you think there were differences between Maria’s father’s family and Maria’s mothers family in terms of how they were treated during the war?
What are the differences of how men and women experience war?
What is the most important thing you have learned about violence?
What is still unclear.
Terms and Concepts to focus on:
--reproductive control as a feminist issue
--the personal is political (see for eg. the quote from Peterson and Runyan on p.52
--examples of how reproductive control is a symptom of women’s low status
--gender-related problems with contraceptive use
--other factors affecting contraceptive use
--female genital mutilation (FGM)
--the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
--pronatalism; pronatalist policies
--antinatalism; coercive antinatalism
--factors affecting women’s abilities to get an abortion
--factors affecting the way abortion is viewe
--What is reproductive control?
--How does women’s lack of reproductive control perpetuate their low status?
--Why is reproductive control a major women’s health issue?
--How do race and class affect reproductive choice?
--Compare the experiences of the Puerto Rican women in Lopez’ study in NYC with those of
the Indian women in Monday’s film, Something Like a War.
--According to Lopez, what is sterlization abuse? (see p. 158)
-- What does Lopez mean by the “ideology of choice” that exists in American culture?
And how does that “ideology of choice” affect how we view the issue of sterilization?
(see p. 160)
-- What factors does Lopez believe contributed to the high rates of sterilization among
Puerto Rican women in New York City?
--What are some of the reasons why Puerto Rican women get sterilized?
Paula Clarke, “The Myth of Reproductive Freedom” (in course pack)
--What sort of reproductive freedom is Clarke referring to
-- Why is chosen childlessness difficult for women in the U.S.
-- Try relating the issues of reproductive freedom and chosen childlessness to topics we
covered earlier in this course
ADDITIONAL INFO. RE: RACE & CLASS & REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL
Eugenics – targeted poor, immigrant women, and women of color in US throughout
20th c.; African American, Puerto Rican, Native American women fought
to expose and end sterilization experiments and abuses and to defend their
right to have children
Yet women of color historically suspicious of mainstream reproductive rights movement
Early birth control mvt led by Margaret Sanger had often embraced racist, anti-immigrant, anti-poor rhetoric
W/advent of birth control, motherhood became a choice for white middle-class women, while sterilization was promoted as a “moral obligation” for indigent, disabled, uneducated women and for women of color
That discrepancy has continued today
Mainstream mvt’s focus has been on preserving “choice”—ie: to protect women’s right to abortion. A right that has become increasingly difficult for poor women to access following the passage of the Hyde Amendment in 1977 which abolished federal funding for abortions.
Conflation of abortion rights with reproductive rights in the mainstream mvt – reproductive rights doesn’t have the same meaning for women of color
Women of color have organized their own women’s health and reproductive health organizations to articulate their own visions of reproductive freedom
Reproductive issues facing women of color:
--continuing eugenics mindset ; ie: that women of color have too many children
lingering perception that the fertility of women of color is out of control
and that it requires intervention (by govt)
--programs like CRAK (Children Require a Caring Kommunity) pay drug
addicted women to become sterilized
--lack of self-determination around repro. control a major issue
eg: 1970s class action suit brought against LA hospital that served many
low income and Latina women; it was discovered a lot of women were
sterilized there w/out their knowledge or consent
--women of color more often targets of long-term birth control methods like
Depo Provera (linked to cancer) (#1 contraceptive of women of color
now) and Norplant
--lack of cross-cultural awareness in sex education
most prevention programs aimed at Latina and African American women
are missionary “scare them straight” curriculum or very technical
Don’t deal with cultural factors behind why teens get pregnant
Highest teen preg rates are among SEAsian communities like
Hmong and Cambodian refugees where huge tradition of early
Marriage and pregnancy (former agrarian society)
Having children was a way to gain authority and respect
Also logical in a community where children helped out and cared for you
And where (poor community) people die before they’re 50
--in many urban areas, hospitals merging (HMO stuff) and often being taken over
by private Catholic hospitals—there svcs like TL, birth control, and
abortion services cut
--problems with insurance
Latina women highest percentages of being uninsured
35% Latinas; 25% AfAm women; 28% Asian and Pacific Island women
(# just reflects citizens—not illegal immigrants)
--pap smeers key svc women of color have trouble accessing
Choice means diff things to women of color, b/c term “choice” is also about economic
barriers to women’s access to repro services and cultural and social barriers that are both internalized by these women and promoted by others in their communities.
READING QUESTIONS FOR WEEK 12: BODY IMAGE
General Thought Questions for the Week
--What are some of the factors that “shape women’s bodies” and affect how we see ourselves?
--What do racism, ageism, patriarchy, and capitalism have to do with women’s bodies and women’s body images?
--How are women’s bodies “objectified”? (And what do we mean by that?)
--What is beautiful?
--How do you feel about your own body?
--What makes you feel good about your body? About yourself? Are they different?
--We’ve discussed before how gender differs from sex in that gender is a cultural construct. Gender is something that must be constructed and maintained.
What kinds of things do you do to construct your femininity (or masculinity) on a daily basis? Why?
WIR #26 Anastasia Higginbotham, "How to Get a Guy, Drop 20 Pounds, and Lose Your Self-Esteem”
--What are some of the messages teen magazines convey to girls about their bodies?
-- What is bulimia? Anorexia nervosa? Compulsive eating?
--What are some of the common reasons why girls develop eating disorders such as bulimia, anorexia, or compulsive eating? What factors contribute to the occurrence of these disorders?
--What roles do society and culture play in the occurrence of eating disorders?
--In what ways did the poet long to be white?
--Why did she long to be white?
--How is being thin, delgada or flaca, thought of in Latino culture?
--How is food thought of in Latino culture?
--How does this compare to your own way of thinking about food?
--Relate this reading to the poem by Nellie Wong. Based on these two readings, what do we mean when we say “beauty is a cultural construct”?
2 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS FOR WEEK 12: BODY IMAGE
1) DUE WED., NOV. 13th in Discussion Section
worth 1 pt toward discussion section grade
format: 1-2 pp typed or neatly handwritten
You MUST include in your paper references to information on the about-face and/or body icon web site(s).
Choose a magazine ad and discuss and analyze it in terms of:
1) how does it portray women?
what messages is it sending about women?
2) look for any gender roles or ideologies that are contributing to the ad’s
design or the messages it is conveying to the reader (eg: look at how the
women in the ad are dressed, how are they posed, what are they doing,
etc.—why are they presented that way?)
3) also analyze the ad in terms of its depiction of gender, race, class, age, and
Use the following web sites (listed in your syllabus) to help you with your analysis:
These are really awesome websites—take the time to have some fun browsing through them!
Bring your homework paper and the ad you analyzed with you to class on Wednesday to share and discuss. Please also bring a favorite magazine to class on Wednesday.
2) DUE FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 15TH in discussion section
worth ½ pt toward your discussion section grade
format: typed or neatly handwritten
Read the article by Erica Goode, “Study Finds TV Trims Fijian Girls’ Body Image and Eating Habits,” on the following web site:
(Note: there’s an underline symbol between fnspec_mg)
(Note: you’ll see what looks like gibberish at first; the article starts further down the page
Answer the following reading questions:
1) What were the traditional Fijian values prior to exposure to American television?
2) How have Fijian beliefs, values, and behaviors regarding body image changed since exposure to American television?
3) What are some of the reasons researchers have given for why the body image of Fijian girls has changed?
READING GUIDE FOR WEEK 13
Burn Ch. 10 * Focus on the section on the Four World Women's Conferences and
the UN's Decade for Women
--know where and when the four Conferences were held
Question: What are some of the things these conferences and the UN Decade for Women did toward improving the status of women
Focus on the section on Women's Rights as Human Rights
Question: Why is it important to make this connection
between women's rights and human rights? Question: What three challenges face the women's human rights movement --know the following:
--UN's Draft Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (be sure to read Box 10.2)--UN's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (Be sure to read Box 10.3 for various Conventions adopted by the UN the one we really want you to be familiar with, though, is CEDAW)
* Focus on CEDAW (pp.262-5) and Boxes 10.5 and 10.6
* Read Conclusion
WIR #137 Shanley "Thoughts on Indian Feminism"
--How does Native American feminism compare to "mainstream" American feminism?
(how is it similar? how does it differ?)
--What does "equality" mean for Native American women?
WIR#144 Shah "Presenting the Blue Goddess"
--How does Asian American feminism compare to "mainstream" American feminism?
What are some of the unique issues facing Asian American women?
How are their experiences with oppression different from those of
Euro American women?
of African American women?
--What have been some of the activities of the Asian American women's
groups Shah mentions?
HOMEWORK FOR WEEK 13
worth 1 1/2 toward your discussion section grade
Due: Friday, November 22 in section
Answer the following questions on the week's readings:
based on Burn Ch.10
1. Why is it important to make a connection between women's rights and
based on WIR #137 Shanley
2. How does Native American feminism compare to "mainstream" American
feminism? (how is it similar? how does it differ?)based on WIR#144 Shah
3. How does Asian American feminism compare to "mainstream" American feminism?(What are some of the unique issues facing Asian American women?
What did they learn from the "mainstream" American feminist movement? What did they learn from the African American feminist movement?)
STUDY GUIDE FOR WS201 FINAL
date of exam:Wednesday, December 18, 2002 9:45-11:45am
format for exam: Multiple-choice and True or False, with a few fill-in-the-blank and/or short answerFocus on common themes and concepts. There will be less emphasis on definitions.
Note: there will be questions on both the textbook and e-reserve readings, as well asthe Monday lectures and the videos we watched in class (Something Like a War, Killing Us Softly 3, and Beyond Beijing).
The exam mostly focuses on the second half of the course (from the Mid-Term untilthe end), but there will be a few questions related to common themes over the semester.
In addition to the below, use the weekly reading guides and reading questions and
any hand-outs you have received (eg: film guides), notes in your course pack (eg: the
information on rape and domestic violence), as well as homework questions to help
you prepare for the exam.
terms and concepts: (be especially familiar with these and why they are important)
the personal is political GI towns
sex sex trafficking
gender sex tourism
sexuality the global sex trade
heterosexual privilege family planning
the Kinsey scale population control
gender identity antinatalism and coercive antinatalism
gender roles pronatalism
gender ideologies forms of birth control
gender attributes sterilization (vasectomy; tubal ligation)
acquaintance rape bulimia
date rape binging
myths and facts about date rape CEDAW
domestic violence intersectionality
power and control wheel
important treaties, conventions, and conferences, etc.:
1975 International Women=s Year
1975 Mexico City, Mexico
1975-1985 Decade for Women
1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
1980 Copenhagen, Denmark
1985 Nairobi, Kenya
1993 UN World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna
Draft Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women
1995 Beijing, China
Platform of Action
some important questions:
Why do so many women stay in abusive relationships?
What does the UN Platform for Action (developed at the Beijing Conference) say about armed conflict and terrorism?
Why do women become involved in the sex trade and GI towns?
What factors contribute to sex tourism?
Why does military violence against women occur?
Common themes in our sections on violence against women
How does the media objectify women's bodies?
How has American advertising affected women elsewhere in the world?
What is reproductive freedom?
Factors affecting women's fertility and birth control options
Factors affecting women's health
What are some of the gender-related problems associated with the use of birth control?
Why do poor women continue to have so many children even though they can't afford them?
What is the ideology of choice and how does it affect how we view issues like sterilization?
Don=t forget to review the questions focused on specific readings, found on your reading guides!