Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

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Phase 1 Populations
Phase 1 Lines
Phase 2 Populations
PopGEM at ISU
   Amber Pearl
   South American
   Supergold

PopGEM Breeding Population List:

 

The relationship of these populations to dent corn heterotic groups is: the Amber Pearl populations are associated with the Stiff Stalk group and the Supergold and South American populations are associated with the Non-Stiff Stalk group.

PHASE 1 Starting Populations:

Missouri South American Popcorn Composite (MSA) 92PopGEM002

            SA Popcorn      X          MoSQB           C10

                                                                        X          PR-Mo2

                                                                        X          Argentine Flint/Cargill Flint-Dent

The SA Popcorn is the South American variety, MoSQB is a yellow, hard endosperm population improved by stalk crushing strength selections.  PR-Mo2 derives from Nigerian germplasm adapted to Missouri, and the Argentine Flint and Cargill Flint-Dent are self-explanatory flint and flint-dent types.

Missouri Supergold Popcorn Composite (MSG) 92PopGEM001

            SG Popcorn      X          MoSQA           C10

                                                                        X          MoSQB            C10

                                                                        X          Revolution/BS13[2]

The SG Popcorn is the Supergold variety, the MoSQA (white endosperm) and MoSQB (yellow endosperm) are hard endosperm populations improved by stalk crushing strength selections.  Revolution is an East African population from the island of ReUnion and has resistance to maize streak virus, BS13 is Iowa released BS13.

 

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BPSGD (95PopGEM003):

This population is pop x dent and includes the following popcorn lines:  SG18, SG30A, SG1533, IDS69, IDS91, HP301, SG39, A2, A7, and Plant Introduction accession number 311249.  Dent materials included are:  BS23, B52, and A619.  The A2 and A7 are Ames Seed Farms inbred lines donated to the ISU Popcorn Breeding project.

BPSAD (95PopGEM002):

This population is pop x dent and includes the following popcorn lines:  NP3, NP5, NP14, P18, U24B, HP62-08, KP58K, SA24, SA194, 4722, HP68-07, and HP62-02.  The dent material included:  B90, B91, A619, BS9, Hallauer Long Ear, and Antiqua.

BPAPD (95PopGEM001):

This population is pop x dent and includes the following popcorn germplasm:  A1-6, IDS28, IDS53, HP302, Tom Thumb and CRYP17.  The dent material included:  B89, DE811, BS20 selected line, Mo2ECB, Gracen ECB composite, Mexican Dent, and Foley’s population improved for stalk strength.  The CRYP line is a Crookham inbred line donated to the ISU Popcorn Breeding project.

BS32-P (98PopGEM003):

This is a flinty-dent population that has been adapted to Iowa.  The original population was FS8B(T) released from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in 1990.  The original source population consisted of a wide range of accessions heavily selected for resistance to southern corn leaf blight.  It was crossed to the Amber Pearl group

BS29-P (98PopGEM001):

This is a selected strain of tropical maize germplasm.  It was developed from Suwan-1(s)C6, which was developed in Thailand.  Kernels tend to be flinty and are mostly dark yellow to orange.  Plants of BS29-P are dark green and vigorous.  It was crossed to the Supergold group.

Little Red Flint (98PopGEM007):

This is a flint corn population.  Its main eye-catching characteristic is the deep orange (slightly reddish) color of its kernels.  We’ve had a little trouble tracing its exact origin but our best guess is that it comes from “cuarentine” a small-kernelled, small-eared flint corn found in Uruguay.  It was crossed to the Amber Pearl group.

BSPSGLE (98PopGEM006):

A population developed to have long, slender ears.  Plant Introduction accession numbers included in the population are:  162972, 177106, 393727, 85:3681 (Viana), 406189, 232972, 254857, 255986, 303865, 303870, 303875, 175973, 177600, 232965, 245131, 303866, 372158, 85:3641 (Moeche), 183649, 232967, 267211, 303869, 275828, 214195, 255978, 214201, 303885, 358586, 311237, White Bushman, Rainbow Flint, and Longfellow Flint.  Popcorn lines included are:  SG18, SG30A, SG39, HP301, IDS69, IDS91, SG1533, and PI 311249.

BSPAPSE (98PopGEM005):

A population developed to have short, girthy ears.  Plant Introduction accession numbers included in the population are:  176804, 213707, 167947, 217406, 317683, 317684, 368830, 186217, 198893, 213727, 162575, Colorado OP #1, 311251, 391669, 186226, 223829, 166042, 172327, 303852, 311252, 340840, 358524, BAUR, 267174, 218133, 221834, Mickles, 420051, and 217405.  Popcorn lines included are:  A1-6, IDS28, IDS53, HP302, and Tom Thumb.

 

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End of PHASE 1 POPGEM Populations Developed:

2001--- SGGEM-1 (01PopGEM007), SAGEM-1 (01PopGEM005), APGEM-1 (01PopGEM001)

2002--- SGGEM2-P (02PopGEM009), SAGEM2-P (02PopGEM005), APGEM2-P   (02PopGEM001), SGGEM2-U (02PopGEM011), SAGEM2-U (02PopGEM007), APGEM2-U (02PopGEM003)

2003--- SGGEM3-P (03PopGEM046), SAGEM3-P (03PopGEM029), APGEM3-P (03PopGEM011), SGGEM3-U (03PopGEM048), SAGEM3-U (03PopGEM031), APGEM3-U (03PopGEM013)

These populations are the official POPGEM recombined populations per the POPGEM protocol.  The SG indicates Supergold, the SA indicates South American, and the AP indicates Amber Pearl; the three commonly used heterotic groups in popcorn.   In 2002 and 2003, the –P indicates that the bulked ears were selected for agronomic traits and popping traits.  The –U indicates that the bulked ears were selected just for agronomic traits.

 

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PHASE 2 Starting Populations:

SG Leaming (03PopGEM039): Leaming is an older dent corn population that the ISU dent corn breeding program has been working on (see BS33 description below). This population has been intermated in the POPGEM Supergold isolation for three years.  Selections have been made for flintier type kernels and good quality plants.  In Iowa, the maturity is variable but averages in the early season range.  There can be some very early plants. Cross this population to Supergold type popcorn inbred lines.

BS33: A sample of the Leaming open-pollinated variety was introduced to Iowa from Ohio in 1982.  Because it seemed the Leaming-Midland sources could provide an additional heterotic cross to work in besides the widely used Reid Yellow Dent-Lancaster Sure Crop heterotic cross, Leaming was acquired and selection initiated to improve root and stalk quality and pest resistance.  Four cycles of S1-S2 recurrent selection were conducted to improve resistance to European corn borer and fungal leaf diseases and improve root and stalk strength.  After three cycles of S1-S2 recurrent selection, grain yield had increased (28.2%), grain moisture increased (2.3%), and root (-56.8%) and stalk (-63.6%) lodging and plant (-12.8%) and ear (-22.7%) heights had decreased.  Heterosis for grain yield in crosses with Midland increased from 4.9 to 17.8% after three cycles of selection.  BS33 has yellow, dent kernels on long ears with 12 to 16 kernel rows.  Relative maturity of BS33 is AES600.

AP Midland (03PopGEM005): Midland is an older dent corn population that the ISU dent corn breeding program has been working on (see BS34 description below). The population has been intermated in the POPGEM Amber Pearl isolation for three years.  Selections have been for flintier type kernels, good quality plants, and large girthed ears.  In Iowa, the maturity is variable but averages in the mid-to-late season range.  Cross this population to Amber Pearl type popcorn inbred lines.

BS34: A sample of the Midland open-pollinated variety was introduced to Iowa in 1980 as PI222615.  It seems Midland originated in southeast Kansas.  It is a late yellow dent variety that has several traits similar to tropical germplasm when grown at higher latitudes.  Because Midland's maturity was too late for direct use in the U.S. Corn Belt, S1-S2 recurrent selection was conducted to develop an earlier strain of Midland and to improve root strength.  After three cycles of selection, root lodging was reduced (-78.6%), grain moisture was lowered (3.6%), plant (-12.8%) and ear (-22.7%) heights were reduced, and grain yield increased 10.8%.  BS34 has short, large girthed ears with 16 to 22 rows of light yellow dented kernels on vigorous plants with wide dark green leaves and large tassels.  Heterosis for grain yield of Leaming-Midland crosses has increased from 4.9 to 17.8% after three cycles of selection.  Maturity of BS34 is AES800.

 

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SA HLE (03PopGEM033): Hallauer Long Ear is a dent corn population worked on for many years in the ISU dent corn breeding program in an experiment to select strictly on ear length in 2 directions, one for short ears and one for long ears.  This population represents the an advanced Hallauer Long Ear population after being intermated for three years in the POPGEM South American isolation.  Selections have been for flintier type kernels, good quality plants, and long ears.  In Iowa, its maturity is in the early season range slightly later than the SG Leaming population but there can be some very early plants.  Cross this population to South American type popcorn inbred lines.

POPGEM Dent SAP (03PopGEM023): This population represents a synthetic of 51 Stiff Stalk dent corn lines from the original GEM 50% and 25% lines after intermating and selection for popping expansion through 3 generations.  This population is a balanced composite of kernels from self-pollinated ears, so the plants should not be quite as tall as some previous years’ POPGEM populations.  This population has the full range of maturity from very early to late plants.  Cross this population to Amber Pearl type popcorn inbred lines.

POPGEM Dent NSA (03PopGEM021): This population represents a synthetic of 17 Non-Stiff Stalk dent corn lines from the original GEM 50% and 25% lines after intermating and selection for popping expansion through 3 generations.  This population is a balanced composite of kernels from self-pollinated ears, so the plants should not be quite as tall as some previous years’ POPGEM populations.  In Iowa, its maturity is variable but averages in the full season range.  Cross this population to South American type popcorn inbred lines. 

 

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POPGEM Subpopulations developed in the ISU Popcorn Breeding Project:

Amber Pearl Heterotic Group:

03:APEarly (03PopGEM001) - Early maturity version of the Amber Pearl POPGEM population

            03:APGirthy (03PopGEM003) - Bulked ears were selected for large girth

03:APSEGirthy (03PopGEM017) - Bulked, girthy ears from the Amber Pearl Short Ear subpopulation

03:APEHD (03PopGEM009) - Bulked ears were from plants that showed the tendency to bend at the shank so the tip of the ears pointed to the ground i.e. ears hanging down  

03:APDS (03PopGEM007) - Dent sterile version of the Amber Pearl POPGEM population

03:APPI (03PopGEM015) - Population improvement version of the Amber Pearl POPGEM population i.e. greater selection intensity on popping expansion

03: POPGEM Dent SAP X Cateto (03PopGEM024) - Beginning stages of development of an early version of POPGEM Dent SAP described above.  The Cateto population used is from the ISU Popcorn Breeding project and has undergone selection for increased popping expansion 

 

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South American Heterotic Group:

03:SAEHD (03PopGEM027) - Bulked ears were from plants that showed the tendency to bend at the shank so the tip of the ears pointed to the ground i.e. ears hanging down

03:SADS (03PopGEM025) - Dent sterile version of the South American POPGEM population

03:SAPI (03PopGEM035) - Population improvement version of the South American POPGEM population i.e. greater selection intensity on popping expansion

03: POPGEM Dent NSA X (Flint X BSP7SAC0) (03PopGEM022) - Beginning stages of development of an early version of POPGEM Dent NSA described above.  The Flint population used is a long-eared, early flint population from the ISU Popcorn Breeding project that has undergone selection for increased popping expansion

Supergold Heterotic Group:

03:SGEarly (03PopGEM037) - Early maturity version of the Supergold POPGEM population

03:SGEHD (03PopGEM043) - Bulked ears were from plants that showed the tendency to bend at the shank so the tip of the ears pointed to the ground i.e. ears hanging down

            03:SGDS (03PopGEM041) - Dent sterile version of the Supergold POPGEM population

03:SGPI (03PopGEM050) - Population improvement version of the Supergold POPGEM population i.e. greater selection intensity on popping expansion

 

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We are grateful to our Cooperators for their support!

 


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Contact us | Home | USDA | ARS | NCRPIS | ISU | Corn Breeding | January 11, 2006