Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

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Accomplishments
Meeting in Chicago
TAC Meeting
GEM Web Site
Data Analysis
Field Day
Public Data
GEM SCA
Breeding Program
Fast-Track
Yield Trial Testing
Winter Nursery

GEM - 1996 Annual Report

1996 Accomplishments

  • A total of 564 topcrosses of 50% and 25% temperate and tropical breeding crosses were yield tested by the participation of 18 Private and 5 Public Cooperators. 
  • Fifteen breeding crosses were selected for advancement in ‘96 Winter based on yield and value-added trait data from 96 Summer. 
  • High yielding lines are being developed from two breeding crosses with protein levels above 16%. 
  • GEM's value-added research capacity expanded with the addition of equipment and conduction of research to analyze germplasm for feed value indicators. 
  • All GEM accessions have been evaluated for composition value, wet milling characteristics, starch quality, and fatty acid composition. All GEM breeding crosses have been evaluated for fatty acid composition. 
  • GEM's World Wide Web site opened on Monday, July 15. From this site cooperators can obtain the latest data from yield tests, value-added trait laboratory, and public cooperator projects, news and upcoming events, and protocol announcements. 
  • A Foxpro program has been developed to manage GEM seed inventory, data management, data analysis, and data summary. 
  • Two successful field days were held: September 18 at the ISU Agronomy farm in Ames, IA and September 24 at OARDC in Wooster, OH. 
  • Private companies have increased their in-kind support level by approximately 25%. 
  • A total of 250 "fast-track" lines and lines from two breeding crosses are being topcrossed and advanced this winter. Selections will be ready for release in 1997. 
  • Cooperators are conducting research for traits considered priorities by the TSG such as corn rootworm resistance, southern rust resistance, drought resistance, Stewart’s Wilt resistance, silage quality, virus resistance, 2nd generation European corn borer resistance, Anthracnose stalk rot resistance, Fusarium ear rot resistance, grain quality, and gray leaf spot resistance. 
  • Lines with non-DIMBOA based European corn borer resistance are being topcrossed for yield testing in 1997.

     

1995 Cooperator’s Meeting, Chicago, IL

Annual reports were presented by Linda Pollak (Coordinator), Marty Carson (North Carolina Project Leader), and Susan Duvick (Value-added trait Support Scientist). Preliminary reports were given by the following public cooperators: John Dudley, John Ayers, Jim Coors, Richard Pratt, and Neil Widstrom. Two new TSG members were elected: Don White of the University of Illinois for a three year term, and Jim Coors of the University of Wisconsin for a two year term. Randy Holley discussed a fast-track breeding program initiated winter ‘95, seed production of the private breeding crosses and winter testcrosses were discussed, and Linda Pollak and Jim Coors reviewed their Field Days. A mid-meeting coffee break gave cooperators an opportunity to network.

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Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Meetings

December 5, 1995, Chicago, IL: Funding decisions for public cooperators were made. GEM needs to enter into research contracts, not give grants, so in the future we will identify targets for research, ask for cost estimates, and enter into a contract with these individuals. We decided to provide $1500 to defray costs for having a field day, Richard Pratt later accepted our offer.

February 11, 1996, St. Louis, MO: Marty Carson and Linda Pollak discussed their breeding work and quarterly reports from support scientists. The protocol was discussed at length, focusing on how to realistically handle a significant number of breeding populations with the level of in-kind support. We will pare down 50% the first year, test best 50% again, ask for more yield plots from cooperators, and determine how to get through all the selected populations. Populations with good agronomic value and quality without yield will continue in other programs, but yield is important for getting products out to commercial partners. Some worried that severe focus on high yield would eliminate good exotic genes. Fast track and topcross yield trials were discussed. As many companies as possible will be involved in the fast track. For yield trials, Doug Tiffany and Dave Harper will choose Pioneer and Holden’s testers (3 Pioneer and 3 Holdens standard), each cooperator will have two local checks of their choice. The TSG decided it would be a good idea for Linda to manage isolations in Puerto Rico to support public breeding efforts, Holdens will supply testers.

May 23, 1996, Urbana, IL: TSG members were assigned public cooperator projects to visit, and encouraged to visit as many yield tests as possible. Quarterly reports were given by Marty Carson and Linda Pollak, written reports by Susan Duvick and Eric Wellin were passed out. Field day plans, lobbying efforts, and protocol issues were discussed. To evaluate our present level of in-kind support and provide cooperators with an opportunity to increase their level, we decided to develop a survey. Kevin Montgomery, Doug Tiffany, and Randy Holley developed the questions, Linda divided the names of public and private breeders among TSG members.

The TSG decided that using actual pedigree names of private crosses, along with appropriate data, is acceptable to use in presentations and publications to non-cooperators. The publication of this data will gain GEM more favorable publicity, yet seed of the private crosses will still only be available to cooperators. Private cooperators are companies, so anyone within a cooperating company has access to seed of private breeding crosses. The company’s principal contact must make sure, however, that information about confidentiality of the seed also gets passed along with the seed. Public cooperators are individuals, so seed cannot be passed along to non-cooperators, and to cooperators only after consulting with the coordinator. Enhanced materials of crosses will be released and freely available eventually, but due to confidentiality agreements with companies the private crosses cannot be released.

September 19, 1996, Ames, IA: Eldean Gerloff, Associate USDA-ARS Area Director, attended and discussed lobbying issues. Need to lobby and build coalitions with Agriculture Committee of U.S. Congress, National Corn Growers Association, and National Corn Genome Initiative. Marty Carson was unable to attend, discussion postponed until next meeting. Hurricanes and continued rain are hampering harvest in North Carolina. Linda Pollak, Susan Duvick, and Eric Wellin gave reports for Iowa. Reports were given about public cooperator visits, some are still ongoing. We decided to fund an early request for 1997 funds for Craig Abel and Richard Wilson’s European corn borer resistance work. The survey was also incomplete. Randy Holley, Dirk Benson, and Jim Parks reported on fast track progress. The fast track protocol will be rewritten by Dirk Benson with more detail on numbers started and saved. Full protocol was discussed and approved, a new protocol will be written and distributed. Winter ‘96 and Summer ‘97 plans were discussed. The TSG renominated Doug Tiffany to serve three more years as the Pioneer representative. Jim Parks will be replaced at the ‘96 Cooperators meeting. Dana Eaton from DeKalb Genetics and Hiep Pham from Cargill were nominated, and later agreed to serve if elected.

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GEM World Wide Web Site

Our World Wide Web site became operational July 25 at www.public.iastate.edu/~usda-gem. From our Web site, visitors can obtain information regarding the value of corn to our economy, and why GEM is a necessary effort to insure that value. Our protocol is summarized in text and graphical form, and corn breeding as a practice is briefly explained. There are links to information regarding our yield testing efforts and the research completed by various Public Cooperators. Available for download, among other things, are previous Newsletters, value-added trait data, current inventory lists, and, shortly, yield data. For the casual visitor or a GEM Cooperator, there is a great deal of information to be had from this Web site.

 

GEM Data Analysis Program

Our proprietary data analysis program, written in Visual Foxpro 3.0, is complete and operational for creating and organizing yield trials, maintaining inventory, and completing seed requests. Inventory can be added, deleted, or updated, and labels and inventory records can be produced for seed storage. Any item in inventory can be selected via request for any cooperator, and corresponding packet labels and invoices printed; inventory is updated automatically. Data collected for yield trials includes the production of entry lists, the collection and organization of test location agronomic data, and actual yield data. Data analysis is performed on any collection of reps as a user may select, with the automatic repair of missing plots; cover pages and ANOVA tables may optionally be printed, as well. Data may easily be imported to or exported from all tables included in our database.

 

1996 Field Days

September 18, 1996, Ames, IA: The field day was attended by over 95 people. Official greetings from USDA-ARS came from Associate Midwest Area Director, Eldean Gerloff. Official greetings from Iowa State University came from Ron Cantrell, on behalf of Dean Topel who was unable to attend at the last minute. Official greetings from GEM came from GEM’s TSG chair, Wilfredo Salhuana. Posters and presentations were given by Richard Wilson, Gary Munkvold, Jon Tollefson, Susan Duvick, Darren Redfearn, Connie Hardy for Center for Crops Utilization Research, Darren Jarboe for Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, Suvrat Singh working with Larry Johnson, and King Yee Ng and Karla Krieger, working with Pam White. All GEM breeding crosses and yield plots were featured, as well as a demonstration of breeding progress in exotic and Corn Belt materials.

September 24, 1996, Wooster, OH: Richard Pratt was the host for this field day at the Ohio State University Agricultural Research and Development Center. Official welcomes came from Skip Nault, Associate Director of OARDC, and Kevin Montgomery from GEM’s TSG. Cooperators and visitors viewed demonstrations of GEM germplasm and research conducted with disease resistance by Pat Lipp, grain quality by Richard Pratt, and virus resistance by Ray Louie.

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Public Cooperators' Data

Status of 1995 Public Data: All public cooperator data have been converted into Excel format, and pedigrees added or updated. Applicable data has been added to our yield trial database, to allow printing along with yield data (for example, ratings of breeding crosses for gray leaf spot are available for printing on yield data analyses). Data from individual cooperators are on separate sheets of one Excel 5.0 book; this book is available to anyone who desires a copy.

 

Public GEM cooperators supported in 1996

Name, Support
Institution
Materials Evaluated
Research
John Ayers
$1500
Pennsylvania State University
All 25% tropical breeding crosses
Gray leaf spot evaluations.
Gary Munkvold
$5000
Iowa State University
100 entries
Fusarium resistance
Margaret Smith
$3000
Cornell University
5 25% resistant to anthracnose, yield test the corresponding 50% testcrosses
Anthracnose stalk rot
Jim Coors
$6000
University of Wisconsin
5 best for silage--both 25% and 50% versions
Nutritional quality of silage, dry matter yield
Dean Barry
$6500
USDA-ARS, Missouri
Accessions selected from last year
ECB, corn rootworm
Richard Pratt
$6300
Ohio State University
About 120 tropical (25%)and temperate crosses
Grain quality, field day
Jon Tollefson
$6000
Iowa State University
Accessions
Corn rootworm
Lawrence Johnson
$9500
Iowa State University
Public crosses and backcrosses
Wet milling, starch quality, composition
John Dudley
$4000
University of Illinois
tropicals x B73, tropicals x Mo17, best 3-4 tropical accessions for leaf blights
Dudley's method, Leaf blights
Neil Widstrom
$500
USDA-ARS, Georgia
North Carolina topcrosses of 50% tropicals
Yield trial
Manjit Kang
$2000
Louisiana State University
North Carolina topcrosses of 50% tropicals
Yield trial, southern rust (P. polysora)
Paul Williams
$2000
USDA-ARS, Mississippi
North Carolina topcrosses of 50% tropicals, 50% tropicals
Yield trial, Aflatoxin
Billy Wiseman
$3500
USDA-ARS, Georgia
25 50% tropical breeding crosses for armyworm, 25 accessions for earworm
fall armyworm, corn earworm
Dennis West
$3000
University of Tennessee
North Carolina topcrosses of 50% tropicals
Yield trials, MDVA-MCDV virus complex
Jim Hawk
$4500
Two Corn Belt topcross trials and associated breeding crosses for Stewart's Wilt
Yield test, drought resistance, Stewart's Wilt

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Iowa Location Breeding Program

‘95 Puerto Rico:25% breeding crosses not sent to Limagrain, Northrup King or Wyffels for fast track were grown for making S1 lines, but due to a shortage of space fewer rows per cross were planted than specified in fast-track protocol.S3 lines from LAMP populations (Antigua 1, Cuba 164, Dominican Republic 150, and St. Croix Gp.3) were selected based on previous topcross data, selfed, and their breeding crosses with either Mo17 or B73 were selfed. Crosses were made to support Larry Johnson’s work.

‘96 Iowa:CH05015:M017 and CH05015:Mo17Mo17 S2 lines were topcrossed to B73.S1’s of CH05015:N12, Ch05015:N15, fast track from ‘95 Puerto Rico, fast track from Limagrain, Wyffels, and Northrup King, and LAMP lines from ‘95 Puerto Rico were planted, advanced to S2’s, and selected. Full protocol (making 1000 S1’s) was begun in AR16035:S02 and SCROGP:N1310, both with protein levels above 16%.Crosses were made to support Larry Johnson’s work. One replication of all GEM yield trials (except Pioneer topcrosses) were grown.

‘96 Puerto Rico:250 selected fast-track S2’s from Limagrain, Northrup King, and Wyffels S1’s, will be advanced to S3’s, and non-Stiff Stalk lines will be topcrossed to two Holden’s testers.CH05015:N12 lines will be topcrossed to a Holden’s tester, CH05015:N15 was sent to Holdens for topcrossing.CH775:N19 selections from Major Goodman will be selfed and crossed to B84.Breeding crosses of Major’s tropical x adapted NC lines will be selfed. Full protocol will be started in CUBA164:S15 and CUBA164:S2008a, both selected for high yield from ‘96 yield trials.

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Fast-Track Breeding Scheme

In ‘95 Winter Northrup King, Limagrain, and Wyffels developed approximately 50 S1 lines in 10, 14, and 10 25% breeding crosses, respectively. They kept 6, 5, 5 breeding crosses, respectively, to advance in ‘96 Summer. Others were distributed among other companies, remnant seed was advanced to S2’s by Linda Pollak ‘96 Summer. Linda selected 250 lines from 31 breeding crosses using both agronomic performance in Ames and reports from companies growing the crosses. SS lines were sent to Pioneer and Golden Harvest for making nSS topcrosses in ‘96 Winter. They will use the same inbred testers used for ‘96 topcross yield tests. All 250 lines will be advanced by Linda in ‘96 Winter, as well as topcrossing with two Holden’s testers.

NIR Whole Grain analysis for Fast track material grown in the Iowa 1996 nursery is completed. The ranges for the values are listed in Table 1 and their respective pedigrees in Table 2.The four Corn Belt checks for this study were Pioneer 3394, Pioneer 3489, B73 and Mo17 (Table 3).The ISU Grain Quality Lab whole grain calibration was applied to generate the relative protein, oil, starch and density values. The data are calculated on a dry matter basis except for density, which is based on 15% moisture.

Table 1.Fast Track NIR Ranges

Item

Composition (%)

Entry Number
Protein 7.6

15.7

3586

2983

Oil 1.1

5.6

2612

3797

Starch 65.3

73.0

3797

2605

Density 1.23

1.39

3236

3346

 

Table 2.Fast Track Pedigrees

Entry

Pedigree

Entry

Pedigree

2384

DKB830:S11a17-4-1

2688

BVIR155:S2011a-48-1

2415

DKB830:S11a17-35-1

2707

CHIS775:S1911b-18-1

2507

DKXL380:S08a12-5-1

2835

BR52051:S1713-11-1

2514

DKXL380:S08a12-12-1

2983

DK212T:S0610-19-1

2525

DKXL380:S08a12-23-1

3236

DKXL212:N11a01-28-1

2602

CUBA164:S1511b-7-1

3346

CUBA110:N1712-34-1

2605

CUBA164:S1511b-10-1

3586

AR16026:S1704-7-1

2612

CUBA164:S1511b-17-1

3797

AR16021:S08a02-47-1

2654

BVIR155:S2011a-14-1

 

Table 3.Corn Belt Checks NIR Data.

 

Entry

Protein %

Oil %

Starch %

Density

Pioneer 3394

11.0

3.3

70.7

1.31

Pioneer 3489

8.6

4.6

70.3

1.25

B73

10.9

3.2

72.2

1.29

Mo17

11.9

3.4

70.2

1.30

GC Fatty Acid analysis for oil quality is partially completed for the Fast track material. The ranges are listed in Table 5 with respective pedigrees in Table 2.

 

Table 4.Fast Track Fatty Acid Ranges

 

Fatty Acid
Composition (%)
Entry Number
Palmitic
8.7
14.2
2384
2688
Stearic
1.3
2.8
2835
2415
Oleic
20.8
40.3
2602
2514
Linolenic
44.0
65.5
2514
2415
Linolenic
0.8
1.6
2507
2707
Tot Sats
10.9
15.8
2525
2654
 

Table 5.Fatty Acid Compositions of Corn Belt Checks

 

Entry

Palmitic %

Stearic %

Oleic %

Linoleic%

Linolenic %

Tot Sats %

Pioneer 3394

11.3

1.6

26.3

59.3

1.5

12.9

Pioneer 3489

8.6

2.5

26.8

60.1

1.1

11.1

B73

10.0

2.1

30

56.7

1.2

12.1

Mo17

9.9

2.0

20.1

65.3

0.7

11.9

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1996 Cooperative Yield Testing of Breeding Cross Topcrosses

Cooperative yield testing during ‘96 Summer occurred with the participation of 18 Private and 5 Public Cooperators.
 

1996 Cooperative Yield Testing:

Plots with Private Cooperators
3,106
Plots with Public Cooperators
474
Plots in Ames
421
Total yield plots
4,001
Plots in disease observation
421
In all, there were 16 experiments averaging 8 reps each (1 for disease observation), with a total 126 reps.

 

1996 GEM Yield Tests:

50% tropical breeding crosses
38
25% tropical breeding crosses
72
50% temperate breeding crosses
36
25% temperate breeding crosses
80
Total entries
564
 

 

YIELD EXPERIMENTS, 1996 

Experiment

Cooperator
Making
Topcross

% Exotic

Tester

Zone

Number of Entries

Number of Reps

96120

Golden Harvest

50%

nSS

tropical

25

15

96121

Pioneer

50%

nSS

tropical

25

6

96122

Cargill

50%

SS

tropical

27

8

96123

Holdens

50%

SS

tropical

27

8

96130

Golden Harvest

25%

nSS

tropical

41

9

96131

Pioneer

25%

nSS

tropical

41

6

96132

Cargill

25%

SS

tropical

45

10

96133

Holdens

25%

SS

tropical

45

10

96520

Golden Harvest

50%

nSS

temperate

27

9

96521

Pioneer

50%

nSS

temperate

27

6

96522

Cargill

50%

SS

temperate

23

7

96523

Holdens

50%

SS

temperate

23

7

96530

Golden Harvest

25%

nSS

temperate

50

9

96531

Pioneer

25%

nSS

temperate

50

6

96532

Cargill

25%

SS

temperate

44

7

96533

Holdens

25%

SS

temperate

44

7

Totals:

16

564

130

Numbering scheme:
"96" for 1996;
1 digit for Homologous Area (1=tropical, 5=temperate);
1 digit for % exotic (2=2-way cross 50% exotic, 3=3-way cross 25% exotic).
1 digit sequential number;
for example:
"96523" is Test #3, 1996, for temperate 50% crosses.
               
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Winter Nursery

The following populations were selected for advancement in ‘96 Winter based on yield and value-added trait data from ‘96 Summer: 

AR01150:N04  
CHIS740:S1411a  
DKB844:S1601  
AR03056:N09 
CHIS775:N1912  
DKXL212:N11a  
AR16026:S17  
CUBA164:S15 
FS8B(T):N1809  
AR16026:S1719  
CUBA164:S2008a  
UR13085:S1912 
BR51501:N11a12  
DKB844:N11b 
UR10001:S1813 
Pioneer, Cargill, Holden’s, and Golden Harvest are making in ‘96 Winter topcrosses of 25 SS and 20 nSS breeding crosses that were not completed in time for the 1996 yield trials. They are using the same inbred lines as used in ‘95 Winter.

 

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We are grateful to our Cooperators for their support!

 


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