Germplasm Enhancement of Maize
- 1996 Annual Report
1995 Cooperator’s Meeting, Chicago, IL
Annual reports were presented by Linda Pollak (Coordinator), Marty Carson (North Carolina Project Leader), and Susan Duvick (Value-added trait Support Scientist). Preliminary reports were given by the following public cooperators: John Dudley, John Ayers, Jim Coors, Richard Pratt, and Neil Widstrom. Two new TSG members were elected: Don White of the University of Illinois for a three year term, and Jim Coors of the University of Wisconsin for a two year term. Randy Holley discussed a fast-track breeding program initiated winter ‘95, seed production of the private breeding crosses and winter testcrosses were discussed, and Linda Pollak and Jim Coors reviewed their Field Days. A mid-meeting coffee break gave cooperators an opportunity to network.
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Meetings
December 5, 1995, Chicago, IL: Funding decisions for public cooperators were made. GEM needs to enter into research contracts, not give grants, so in the future we will identify targets for research, ask for cost estimates, and enter into a contract with these individuals. We decided to provide $1500 to defray costs for having a field day, Richard Pratt later accepted our offer.
February 11, 1996, St. Louis, MO: Marty Carson and Linda Pollak discussed their breeding work and quarterly reports from support scientists. The protocol was discussed at length, focusing on how to realistically handle a significant number of breeding populations with the level of in-kind support. We will pare down 50% the first year, test best 50% again, ask for more yield plots from cooperators, and determine how to get through all the selected populations. Populations with good agronomic value and quality without yield will continue in other programs, but yield is important for getting products out to commercial partners. Some worried that severe focus on high yield would eliminate good exotic genes. Fast track and topcross yield trials were discussed. As many companies as possible will be involved in the fast track. For yield trials, Doug Tiffany and Dave Harper will choose Pioneer and Holden’s testers (3 Pioneer and 3 Holdens standard), each cooperator will have two local checks of their choice. The TSG decided it would be a good idea for Linda to manage isolations in Puerto Rico to support public breeding efforts, Holdens will supply testers.
May 23, 1996, Urbana, IL: TSG members were assigned public cooperator projects to visit, and encouraged to visit as many yield tests as possible. Quarterly reports were given by Marty Carson and Linda Pollak, written reports by Susan Duvick and Eric Wellin were passed out. Field day plans, lobbying efforts, and protocol issues were discussed. To evaluate our present level of in-kind support and provide cooperators with an opportunity to increase their level, we decided to develop a survey. Kevin Montgomery, Doug Tiffany, and Randy Holley developed the questions, Linda divided the names of public and private breeders among TSG members.
The TSG decided that using actual pedigree names of private crosses, along with appropriate data, is acceptable to use in presentations and publications to non-cooperators. The publication of this data will gain GEM more favorable publicity, yet seed of the private crosses will still only be available to cooperators. Private cooperators are companies, so anyone within a cooperating company has access to seed of private breeding crosses. The company’s principal contact must make sure, however, that information about confidentiality of the seed also gets passed along with the seed. Public cooperators are individuals, so seed cannot be passed along to non-cooperators, and to cooperators only after consulting with the coordinator. Enhanced materials of crosses will be released and freely available eventually, but due to confidentiality agreements with companies the private crosses cannot be released.
September 19, 1996, Ames, IA: Eldean Gerloff, Associate USDA-ARS Area Director, attended and discussed lobbying issues. Need to lobby and build coalitions with Agriculture Committee of U.S. Congress, National Corn Growers Association, and National Corn Genome Initiative. Marty Carson was unable to attend, discussion postponed until next meeting. Hurricanes and continued rain are hampering harvest in North Carolina. Linda Pollak, Susan Duvick, and Eric Wellin gave reports for Iowa. Reports were given about public cooperator visits, some are still ongoing. We decided to fund an early request for 1997 funds for Craig Abel and Richard Wilson’s European corn borer resistance work. The survey was also incomplete. Randy Holley, Dirk Benson, and Jim Parks reported on fast track progress. The fast track protocol will be rewritten by Dirk Benson with more detail on numbers started and saved. Full protocol was discussed and approved, a new protocol will be written and distributed. Winter ‘96 and Summer ‘97 plans were discussed. The TSG renominated Doug Tiffany to serve three more years as the Pioneer representative. Jim Parks will be replaced at the ‘96 Cooperators meeting. Dana Eaton from DeKalb Genetics and Hiep Pham from Cargill were nominated, and later agreed to serve if elected.
GEM World Wide Web Site
Our World Wide Web site became operational July 25 at www.public.iastate.edu/~usda-gem. From our Web site, visitors can obtain information regarding the value of corn to our economy, and why GEM is a necessary effort to insure that value. Our protocol is summarized in text and graphical form, and corn breeding as a practice is briefly explained. There are links to information regarding our yield testing efforts and the research completed by various Public Cooperators. Available for download, among other things, are previous Newsletters, value-added trait data, current inventory lists, and, shortly, yield data. For the casual visitor or a GEM Cooperator, there is a great deal of information to be had from this Web site.
GEM Data Analysis Program
Our proprietary data analysis program, written in Visual Foxpro 3.0, is complete and operational for creating and organizing yield trials, maintaining inventory, and completing seed requests. Inventory can be added, deleted, or updated, and labels and inventory records can be produced for seed storage. Any item in inventory can be selected via request for any cooperator, and corresponding packet labels and invoices printed; inventory is updated automatically. Data collected for yield trials includes the production of entry lists, the collection and organization of test location agronomic data, and actual yield data. Data analysis is performed on any collection of reps as a user may select, with the automatic repair of missing plots; cover pages and ANOVA tables may optionally be printed, as well. Data may easily be imported to or exported from all tables included in our database.
1996 Field Days
September 18, 1996, Ames, IA: The field day was attended by over 95 people. Official greetings from USDA-ARS came from Associate Midwest Area Director, Eldean Gerloff. Official greetings from Iowa State University came from Ron Cantrell, on behalf of Dean Topel who was unable to attend at the last minute. Official greetings from GEM came from GEM’s TSG chair, Wilfredo Salhuana. Posters and presentations were given by Richard Wilson, Gary Munkvold, Jon Tollefson, Susan Duvick, Darren Redfearn, Connie Hardy for Center for Crops Utilization Research, Darren Jarboe for Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, Suvrat Singh working with Larry Johnson, and King Yee Ng and Karla Krieger, working with Pam White. All GEM breeding crosses and yield plots were featured, as well as a demonstration of breeding progress in exotic and Corn Belt materials.
September 24, 1996, Wooster, OH: Richard Pratt was the host for this field day at the Ohio State University Agricultural Research and Development Center. Official welcomes came from Skip Nault, Associate Director of OARDC, and Kevin Montgomery from GEM’s TSG. Cooperators and visitors viewed demonstrations of GEM germplasm and research conducted with disease resistance by Pat Lipp, grain quality by Richard Pratt, and virus resistance by Ray Louie.
Public Cooperators' Data
Status of 1995 Public Data: All public cooperator data have been converted into Excel format, and pedigrees added or updated. Applicable data has been added to our yield trial database, to allow printing along with yield data (for example, ratings of breeding crosses for gray leaf spot are available for printing on yield data analyses). Data from individual cooperators are on separate sheets of one Excel 5.0 book; this book is available to anyone who desires a copy.
Public GEM cooperators supported in 1996
Iowa Location Breeding Program
‘95 Puerto Rico:25% breeding crosses not sent to Limagrain, Northrup King or Wyffels for fast track were grown for making S1 lines, but due to a shortage of space fewer rows per cross were planted than specified in fast-track protocol.S3 lines from LAMP populations (Antigua 1, Cuba 164, Dominican Republic 150, and St. Croix Gp.3) were selected based on previous topcross data, selfed, and their breeding crosses with either Mo17 or B73 were selfed. Crosses were made to support Larry Johnson’s work.
‘96 Iowa:CH05015:M017 and CH05015:Mo17Mo17 S2 lines were topcrossed to B73.S1’s of CH05015:N12, Ch05015:N15, fast track from ‘95 Puerto Rico, fast track from Limagrain, Wyffels, and Northrup King, and LAMP lines from ‘95 Puerto Rico were planted, advanced to S2’s, and selected. Full protocol (making 1000 S1’s) was begun in AR16035:S02 and SCROGP:N1310, both with protein levels above 16%.Crosses were made to support Larry Johnson’s work. One replication of all GEM yield trials (except Pioneer topcrosses) were grown.
‘96 Puerto Rico:250 selected fast-track S2’s from Limagrain, Northrup King, and Wyffels S1’s, will be advanced to S3’s, and non-Stiff Stalk lines will be topcrossed to two Holden’s testers.CH05015:N12 lines will be topcrossed to a Holden’s tester, CH05015:N15 was sent to Holdens for topcrossing.CH775:N19 selections from Major Goodman will be selfed and crossed to B84.Breeding crosses of Major’s tropical x adapted NC lines will be selfed. Full protocol will be started in CUBA164:S15 and CUBA164:S2008a, both selected for high yield from ‘96 yield trials.
Fast-Track Breeding Scheme
In ‘95 Winter Northrup King, Limagrain, and Wyffels developed approximately 50 S1 lines in 10, 14, and 10 25% breeding crosses, respectively. They kept 6, 5, 5 breeding crosses, respectively, to advance in ‘96 Summer. Others were distributed among other companies, remnant seed was advanced to S2’s by Linda Pollak ‘96 Summer. Linda selected 250 lines from 31 breeding crosses using both agronomic performance in Ames and reports from companies growing the crosses. SS lines were sent to Pioneer and Golden Harvest for making nSS topcrosses in ‘96 Winter. They will use the same inbred testers used for ‘96 topcross yield tests. All 250 lines will be advanced by Linda in ‘96 Winter, as well as topcrossing with two Holden’s testers.
NIR Whole Grain analysis for Fast track material grown in the Iowa 1996 nursery is completed. The ranges for the values are listed in Table 1 and their respective pedigrees in Table 2.The four Corn Belt checks for this study were Pioneer 3394, Pioneer 3489, B73 and Mo17 (Table 3).The ISU Grain Quality Lab whole grain calibration was applied to generate the relative protein, oil, starch and density values. The data are calculated on a dry matter basis except for density, which is based on 15% moisture.
Table 1.Fast Track NIR Ranges
Table 2.Fast Track Pedigrees
Table 3.Corn Belt Checks NIR Data.
GC Fatty Acid analysis for oil quality is partially completed for the Fast track material.
The ranges are listed in Table 5 with respective pedigrees in Table 2.
Table 4.Fast Track Fatty Acid Ranges
Table 5.Fatty Acid Compositions of Corn Belt Checks
1996 Cooperative Yield Testing of Breeding Cross Topcrosses
Cooperative yield testing during ‘96 Summer occurred with the participation of 18 Private and 5 Public Cooperators.
1996 Cooperative Yield Testing:
In all, there were 16 experiments averaging 8 reps each (1 for disease observation), with a total 126 reps.
1996 GEM Yield Tests:
The following populations were selected for advancement in ‘96 Winter based on yield and value-added trait data from ‘96 Summer:
Pioneer, Cargill, Holden’s, and Golden Harvest are making in ‘96 Winter topcrosses of 25 SS and 20 nSS breeding crosses that were not completed in time for the 1996 yield trials. They are using the same inbred lines as used in ‘95 Winter.
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