Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

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Accomplishments
 - at Ames location
 - at Raleigh location
GEM SCA
TAC Meeting
Personnel Update
In-Kind Support
 - Summer Nursery
 - Winter Nursery
Yield Trials
Data Availability
Publicity
POPGEM
Performance
Lab Reports
 - Grain Quality
 - NC Line Quality
 - Research Plan

GEM - 2002 Annual Report

2002 Accomplishments

  • GEMS-0002, an early stiff stalk related line, was released from the Ohio State University on March 24, 2002. GEMS-0002 is derived from the GEM breeding cross, FS8A(S):S09. It is recommended as a unique source of germplasm for improvement and diversification of non-Lancaster related inbreds.

  • DE3 and DE4, non-stiff stalk related lines, were released from the University of Delaware, April 12, 2002. Both lines are derived from the GEM breeding cross, DKXL212:N11a. Both lines are recommended as unique sources of germplasm with DE3 being rated intermediate (3.0), and DE4 resistant (1.0) for grey leaf spot.

  • Twenty-eight inbreds (S3’s) were identified from 1999-2001 having yield, Y/M, and lodging resistance equivalent, or better than the mean of the commercial checks. These inbreds are being further evaluated for protein, oil, starch, and for future analytical studies involving amino acid analysis.

  • Thirty inbreds (S3) developed from the North Carolina GEM program were released to the GEM collaborators.

Ames Location:

  • Approximately 12,000 yield plots were conducted or coordinated from Ames in 25 experiments. Sets C and D were evaluated in second year yield trials (6 of the 25 experiments) with total of 1,784 plots.

  • 6 Specific Cooperator Agreements (SCA) were partially funded by GEM in 2002 for a combined total of $20,500.

  • Sixteen GEM S2 topcrosses were identified in 2002 having better yield than the commercial check mean.

  • The GEM cold storage facility at the Ames NCRPIS was completed in April, 2002, and is working very well. GEM germplasm was transferred to the new 1,000 sq. ft. facility and has been inventoried.

  • New GEM Cooperators for 2002 include three from the private sector: Sursem SA (Arg), Illinois Foundation Seed, Champaign, IL, Benson Seed Research, York, NE; and three from public sector: Jim Holland, USDA-ARS located in Raleigh, NC, Michael Clements, USDA-ARS located at Mississippi State, and Mark Westgate, Iowa State University.

  • GEM again participated in the Central Iowa Field Day managed by CAD. Although turn out was less than expected due to rain, the hybrids looked good and the presentations created a lot of interest and potential new GEM cooperators were identified.

Raleigh, NC Location:

  • Approximately 20,906 yield trial plots at 20 locations (some locations had subsites) were conducted from, or coordinated by Raleigh in 2002.

  • About 180 entries (plus 814 additional in special tests such as with new testers, CML lines, sampling studies, etc.) were in second year trials, and 1,099 entries in first year trials.

  • Fourteen cooperators (8 companies, 4 universities, and 2 USDA-ARS) grew GEM trials coordinated through the Raleigh location at 20 locations across the south, east, and lower Midwest.

  • Approximately 16 GEM breeding crosses (50% tropical emphasis) are at various stages of advancement at Raleigh.

  • About 1,889 new topcross families have been made in Raleigh for 2003 trials.

  • Approximately 5,579 nursery rows (includes 111 by Syngenta ) were grown or coordinated by Raleigh. This includes 992 selfs, 1,088 pairs, 1,888 isolation rows, and 1,500 observations.

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Public Cooperators with Specific Cooperator Agreements (SCA) in 2002:

Six public researchers were supported by GEM in 2002, and one research project involved a no cost extension of last year’s agreement (Table 1). Full research reports can be found on the GEM web site under 2002 Public Data Summary. Most of the reports were presented at the 2002 GEM Cooperator Meeting, December 11, 2002 in Chicago.

 Table 1. Public Cooperators Supported In 2002

Name

SCA No.

Amount

Jim Hawk

58-3625-1-155

$5,000

Jim Coors

58-3625-9-123

$4,500

Margaret Smith

58-3625-1-153

$2,000

Wenwei Xu

58-3625-9-124

$2,500

Mark Campbell

58-3625-0-107

$2,000

Dennis West

58-3625-1-154

$4,500

Rich Pratt

No cost extension

-

                                                                                                            Total: $20,500

  • Jim Hawk, University of Delaware, SCA No.58-3625-1-155: Inbred line development in GEM breeding crosses and yield and agronomic performance evaluations. Selections and top cross evaluation of the GEM breeding cross DKXL212:N11a, a 50% tropical non Stiff Stalk, resulted in the release of two inbred lines, DE3 and DE4. DE3 was reported to be 1 day later than B73, and had intermediate resistance to grey leafspot. DE4 was reported as being resistant to grey leafspot (rating 1.0), and is 2 days later than B73. Inbred DKXL212:N11a-197-1-1-1-1 and DE4 may have potential for improving agronomic and disease performance, and would be good breeding sources for improving other non-stiff stalk lines. Both inbreds yielded well with two of three tester lines, and yields were not significantly different from the checks.

  • Jim Coors, University of Wisconsin, SCA No. 58-3625-9-123: Silage evaluation of topcrosses with advanced lines from GEM breeding crosses. The UW corn breeding program has been an active cooperator with the GEM project since 1995. The strategy to utilize GEM lines involves choosing topcrosses with high grain potential based on Midwest GEM performance data, and acceptable maturity. These topcrosses are evaluated for silage potential such as high dry matter content and nutritional quality. Once outstanding topcrosses are identified, the breeding cross or GEM parent is included in the UW silage nursery. GEM test A trials identified 7 testcrosses with greater production potential than 31,500 pounds/acre. Most of the production was due to high forage yield, although 1 hybrid, BR52051:N04-75-1 x LH198, had excellent quality based on low NDF, high IVD, and high milk per ton. Other topcrosses of interest included pedigrees derived from FS8B(T):N11a08 x LH198, and DKB844:S1601-512 x LH185, and CHIS775:S1911-645 x LH185. In GEM B trials good quality hybrids included SCRO1:N1310-398-1-B-21 x HC33, AR17026:N1019-65008-2-3-1 x HC33, and CUBA164:S1517-01113 x LH287.

  • Margaret Smith, Cornell University, SCA No. 58-3625-1-153: Developing breeding lines with anthracnose stalk rot resistance from exotic maize germplasm. Following several years of research for anthracnose resistance, GEM breeding crosses were identified with outstanding disease resistance (11% stalk infected for GEM families vs. 48% for the best resistant check). Some of the best breeding crosses included FS8B(T):N1802, CH04030:S0906, AR01150:N0406, and GOQUEEN:N1603. Following inbreeding to S5 stage, the lines were crossed to testers and evaluated in yield trials. The results indicated that some lines having good resistance also had good testcross performance, and selection was made for both traits. Of interest was that the level of resistance of the GEM derived lines is better than what is available in currently released U.S. inbreds. Yield performance of the resistant material x B73/CD1 tester was lower than most of the checks, but still better than some checks. Better yield performance would be expected if a newer elite tester is used. The results indicate that simultaneous selection for anthracnose resistance and for yield can be a useful approach as a breeding strategy, and that high levels of resistance can be attained.

  • Wenwei Xu, Texas A&M University, SCA No. 58-3625-9-124: Use of GEM germplasm to improve drought and corn ear worm resistance. Drought and stress research in Lubbock, TX has identified GEM breeding crosses with resistance to drought, corn ear worm, and grain mold resistance (last year’s report identified some key germplasm involving well known GEM accessions such as CUBA164, FS8B(T), PASCO14, DK888, and GUAT209-see 2001 GEM Public Cooperators Report). In 2002, additional germplasm reported included 15 breeding crosses (ANTIG03:N12, UR11002:N0308b, AR16026:N12, ANTIG01:N16, and additional crosses involving CUBA164:D27, GUAD05:N06, DK888, etc). The top ranking cross for yield was ANTIG03:N12 that yielded well under irrigated and drought conditions, had good CEW resistance, stay green and low grain mold. Grain mold was highly correlated with CEW penetration (r=0.68), and it was speculated that resistance to stress and CEW will be useful in aflatoxin  resistance  development. 

  • Mark Campbell Truman State University, SCA No. 58-3625-0-107: The development of starches possessing elevated amylose and unique thermal properties using GEM material.  High amylose corn is a specialty product with future potential for a growing market due to greater uses of starch products. The germplasm base of high amylose corn is very narrow, and the level of breeding activity small. In addition, yields of high amylose hybrids average only 60% of normal hybrids. GEM lines with high yield potential therefore may be useful sources of genetic diversity. Using a Corn Belt source of the amylose extender mutation in OH43xH99ae/ae, crosses were made to 3 sources of germplasm including the GEM breeding cross, GUAT209:S13. Following several selfing generations, amylose content was raised with selection practiced for 70% or greater. Efforts were made to cross some of the better lines to other GEM sources having a known record of high yield (CUBA164:S15…, FS8B(T):N1809… UR13085:N0215,…etc.), and using the high yielding GEM source as a recurrent parent. F1 ears (F2 segregating kernels) were harvested in 2001/2002 winter nursery and planted in summer 2002, and ears analyzed for amylose content. The data suggested that modifiers contributed by the exotic sources such as GUAT209:S13 are responsible for enhancing amylose. A bimodal distribution pattern grouped kernels into 2 classes (55% or near 70% amylose) that suggests one or a few modifiers are involved.

  • Dennis West, University of Tennessee, SCA No. 58-3625-1-154: Breeding lines with germplasm exotic. For the past several years GEM topcrosses have exceeded the means of the check hybrids in experiments grown in yield trials in Tennessee. In 2002 trials in Knoxville, two hybrids PASCO14S21F1S2x FR tester, and DK888N11F1S2xT8 exceeded the means of 8 check hybrids by 50 and 47 bushels respectively. Although a yield advantage of this magnitude is sometimes found in single location data, the results suggest that multiple location/ multiple year testing of these hybrids and similar genotypes is warranted to determine consistency and realistic yield advantages relative to commercial checks.   

  • Rich Pratt, Ohio State University, (no cost extension of previous SCA): Introduction of grain quality traits from GEM germplasm into Corn Belt maize. The second GEM release, GEMS-0002 was from the 50% GEM breeding cross FS8(A)S:S09. It was earlier than B73 by 1 week, yielded 95% of the commercial checks, and was 1.5% drier harvest moisture than the commercial check mean. The inbred also has 2% greater protein content than B73, and is recommended as a unique breeding source to improve stiff stalk related material.

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Personnel Update

Ames: USDA-ARS Plant Introduction Research Unit.

Dr. Mike Blanco was hired in February, 2002, as GEM Coordinator & Geneticist. 
Brian Alt was hired in July 2002, as GEM Technician. 
Mack Shen, Agronomist/Acting Data Manager.
Sue Duvick, Quality Traits Lab Manager.
Dr. Candice Gardner, Research Leader.

Ames: USDA-ARS Corn Insects and Corn Genetics Research Unit.

Dr. Linda Pollak, Research Geneticist and Quality Traits Breeder.
Penny Meyerholz, Agricultural Research Technician.
Dr. Les Lewis, Research Leader.

Raleigh: USDA-ARS.

            Joe Hudyncia, Southeastern GEM Coordinator (Agricultural Research Technician).
            Dr. Jim Holland, Maize Research Geneticist, GEM Collaborator.
            Vickie Brewster, Research Support Scientist.
            Dr. David Marshall, Research Leader and Fund holder.

Raleigh: NC State University

Dr. Major Goodman, Professor, GEM Collaborator.

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In-Kind Support

GEM presently has 20 private cooperators conducting summer and winter nurseries, replicated yield trials, disease evaluations, or other support services such as lab analysis, etc. Following a meeting with June Blalock in July, and subsequent TSG discussions in the September meeting, it was agreed that an appendix be included to each cooperators agreement detailing the type of in kind support that will be provided. Since in kind support varies from year to year, and is driven by company resources and budgets, the appendix would be updated annually to reflect in as much detail as possible what type and level of support would include. Implicit in “in kind support” is the mutual understanding that any data or seed generated by a Cooperator will be shared with other GEM cooperators, who shall have the right to freely use such data and/or seed. A statement to this effect is also now included in each shipment of GEM seed.

In kind support services for summer and winter nurseries can be found in Tables 2 and 3 respectively. Although our cooperators have done a very commendable job providing nursery support, more support is required, particularly for working new breeding crosses, i.e. making S1’s. In order to achieve the GEM projects objectives, the TSG recognized at their March 2002 meeting that 30 new breeding crosses be worked annually by GEM or GEM cooperators. Less than half this number has been worked annually for the past 2 years. Additional resources must be committed to meet this objective.

A second issue has been the status of the GEM breeding cross germplasm. Since companies contribute their proprietary genetics when joining GEM (most joined in 1995-1996), it is obvious that some of our material is already considered “old genetics”. A special effort was made by GEM in 2002 to upgrade our existing older breeding crosses by encouraging companies to make new breeding crosses with their proprietary lines. This resulted in 8 companies making new breeding crosses with GEM accessions in 2002 summer or winter nurseries. The fact that 8 different companies participated is also advantageous to enhancing genetic diversity coming from the adapted Corn Belt side. Thanks to all who volunteered to make new breeding crosses.

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Table 2. Private In-Kind Nursery Support – Summer 2002

Company Breeding Cross

AgReliant

Make S1’s in CUBA173:S0422
Advance to S3’s AR01150:S01

Beck’s

Advance to S2’s AR17056:N2035
Regenerations

Mycogen

Advance to S2’s BR51675:N0620
Make breeding crosses

Monsanto

Make breeding crosses

FFR

Make S1’s in BVIR155:S2012

Garst

Advance to S2’s NEI9004:S2818

Garst

Advance to S2’s DK212T:N11a12
Make breeding crosses

Golden Harvest

Advance to S2’s NEI9008:S17a15
Advance to S2’s BIGWHITE:S12
Make S1’s in FS8(B): S03

Hoegemeyer

Advance to S2’s AR01150:S0125
Advance to S2’s CH05015:N1206
Regenerations

Holden’s

Advance to S2’s NEI9008:S17b16
Advance to S2’s MDI022:N2120
Advance to S2’s AR01150:S0125

Hyland

Make breeding crosses
Make S1’s in CH05015:N3215

National Starch

Recombine CUBA164:S15 selections
Advance to S3’s DK212T:N11a12

NC+

Advance to S2’s BR52060:S0210

Syngenta

Support GEM at NC State

Pau Seeds

Advance to S2’s NEI9008:S17c21

Pioneer

Advance to S2’s NEI9004:S2818 from Pioneer
Advance to S2’s MDI022:N2120 from Pioneer
Make breeding crosses

PSR

Disease evaluations

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Table 3. Private In-Kind Support - Winter 2002-2003

Company Breeding Cross

AgReliant

Make S1’s in FS8B(T):N11a08f

Beck’s

Top cross their S2’s of AR17056:N2035

Mycogen

Top cross their S2’s of BR51675:N0620

Monsanto

Make S1’s in CUBA164:S1542
Top cross their S2’s of UR05071:S0415

Golden Harvest

Top cross their S2’s of NEI9008:S17a15
Top cross their S2’s of BIGWHITE:S12

Holden’s

Top cross their S2’s of NEI9008:S17b16
Top cross their S2’s of MDI022:N2120
Top cross their S2’s of AR01150:S0125

Illinois Foundation Seed

Make breeding crosses

NC+

Top cross their S2’s of BR52060:S0210

Syngenta

Make breeding crosses

Pau Seeds

Make breeding cross

Pioneer

Make S1’s in UR1003:S17a12
Make S1’s in BR51721:N2012

 

Yield Trials in 2002

In kind support services for replicated yield trials are shown in Table 4. Ten companies (and GEM Ames) made S2 topcrosses in their own nurseries, and conducted yield trials throughout the Midwest in 2002. Other companies providing extensive yield trial support to GEM include FFR Cooperative, National Starch and Chemical Company, Nidera (Argentina), Pau Seeds, and SeedDirect.

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 Table 4. Private Cooperator Yield Trials 2002

Experiment Cooperator Making Topcross

%Exotic

Tester

Zone

Number Of Entries

Number Of Reps

02601

GEM

Both

nSS

Both

55

10

02602

GEM

Both

nSS

Both

53

8

02603

GEM

Both

SS

Both

34

5

02604

GEM

Both

SS

Both

34

5

02501

GEM

Both

nSS

Temperate

25

10

02502

GEM

Both

nSS

Temperate

22

10

02528

GEM

50%

SS

Temperate

80

6

02121

GEM

50%

SS

Tropical

36

6

02531

GEM

25%

SS

Temperate

39

6

02524

GEM

50%

nSS

Temperate

10

6

02536

GEM

25%

nSS

Temperate

151

6

02537

GEM

25%

nSS

Temperate

62

6

02532

Becks

25%

nSS

Temperate

65

6

02533

Garst

25%

SS

Temperate

268

5

02522

Golden Harvest

50%

nSS

Temperate

120

8

02131

Holden’s

25%

SS

Tropical

119

6

02122

Holden’s

50%

SS

Tropical

98

6

02132

AgReliant

25%

SS

Tropical

15

3

02526

AgReliant

50%

nSS

Temperate

55

6

025311

Monsanto

25%

SS

Temperate

144

6

02135

Mycogen

25%

nSS

Tropical

40

6

02133

NC+

25%

SS

Tropical

70

6

02538

Pioneer

25%

SS

Temperate

96

6

02535

Pioneer

25%

SS

Temperate

96

6

02136

Hoegemeyer

25%

nSS

Tropical

140

6

Total Plots – 11,989

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Yield Trial Data Availability

GEM Project Data is available via the GEM web site at:

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~usda-gem/

Publicity

  • Betran, F.J., T. Isakeit, G. Odvody, and K. Mayfield. 2002. Aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbreds and hybrids. In Proc. of the Aflatoxin/Fumonisin workshop 2002. October 23-25, 2002. San Antonio, TX.

  • Blanco, M.H. 2002. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project (GEM): Accomplishments and Research Goals. Seminar presented to Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, October 17, 2002.

  • Campbell, M.R., H. Yeager, N. Abdubek, L.M. Pollak and, D.V. Glover 2002. Comparison of Maize Starches from Exotic backgrounds. Cereal Chem 79:317-321.

  • Carena, M.J. 2002. Methods of adapting exotic germplasm to the North Plains. Field Day, presented to North Dakota State University Extension Service, North Dakota Corn Council Utilization, and North Dakota Corn Growers Association, September 11, 2002 .

  • Central Iowa Field Days, featuring GEM (USDA-ARS), and POPGEM demonstration plots, September 18 and 19, 2002.

  • Coors, J. G. University of Wisconsin Silage Breeding Field Day, September 6, 2002 .

  • Ji, Y., K. Seetharaman, K. Wong, L.M. Pollak, S. Duvick, J.-L. Jane and P. J. White. 2002. Functional and Structural Properties of Starches from New Corn Lines. AACC Annual Meetings October 13-17, Montreal, Oct.

  • Ji, Y., K. Seetharaman, L.M. Pollak, S. Duvick, J.-L. Jane and P. J. White. 2002. Effect of Genotype and Environment on the Thermal Properties of Starches from Developmental Corn Lines. AACC Annual Meetings Oct. 13-17, Montreal, Oct. 

  • Ji, Y., K. Seetharaman, L.M. Pollak, S. Duvick, J.-L. Jane, and P. J. White. 2002. Intra- and Inter-population variability of starches from exotic corn lines and their derivatives. Corn Utilization Conf., Kansas City, MO.

  • Ji, Y., K. Seetharaman, S. Duvick, L.M. Pollak, J. Jane, and P.J. White. 2002. Thermal and structural properties of several unusual starches from developmental lines. Carbohydrate Polymers (In press).

  • Ji, Y., K. Wong, J. Hasjim, L.M. Pollak, S. Duvick, J.-L. Jane, and P. J. White. 2002. Characterization of novel starches from new corn lines. Corn Utilization Conf., Kansas City, MO.

  • Li, Ruming, Manjit S. Kang, Orlando Moreno, and Linda M. Pollak. 2002. Field resistance to Aspergillus flavus from exotic maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.Plant Genet. Resources Newsletter 130:11-15.

  • Munamava, Miriam, Linda Pollak, and Susana Goggi. 2002. Seed quality of maize inbred lines of different seed composition and genetic background. North Central Branch ASA Meetings, Ames, IA.

  • Pollak, L.M. 2002. The History and Success of the Public-Private Project on Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM).  Advances in Agronomy 78: (in press).

  • Pollak, Linda, Susan Duvick, Nuo Shen, and Pamela White. 2002. Another approach in breeding corn for quality. Corn Utilization Conf., Kansas City, MO.

  • Santos, M.X., L.M. Pollak, H.W.L. Carvalho, C.A.P. Pacheco, P.E.O. Guimaraes, R.V. Andrade, and E.E.G. Gama. 2001.  Heterotic responses of tropical elite maize accessions from Latin America with two Brazilian testers. Scientia Agricola 58:767-775. 

  • Xu, W.W. and Thomas Marek. 2002. Yield performance and drought tolerance of experimental corn hybrids. North Plains Research Field Ag Day, Etter, TX, Aug. 7, p.29, AREC 02-33.

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POPGEM

In 2002, the third year of the POPGEM program, 9 private cooperating companies and 3 public cooperators were involved with the program. Per the protocol for year 3, private cooperators planted each of the three heterotic populations and made selections for improved plant type and ear type within each population. Per the protocol, in 2002, public breeders intermated the crosses made by private companies the previous year.

Additional POPGEM work in the Iowa State University breeding program included a second generation of intermating 3 dent corn populations to the POPGEM populations: Leaming was intermated within Supergold, Midland was intermated within Amber Pearl, and Hallauer Long Ear was intermated within South American. Also, based on 2000 data, the best popping 50% and 25% original GEM dent lines were intermated for a second cycle within the Stiff Stalk group (54 lines) and the non Stiff Stalk group (17 lines). The above intermatings were made to develop material for the next phase of the POPGEM protocol. Ten of the best popping inbred lines developed from the original 50% and 25% GEM dent populations and selected the previous year were selfed for seed increase and popping expansion evaluation. Also, the development of a dent sterile version of each of the three heterotic POPGEM populations was initiated.

GEM Germplasm and Agronomic Performance

GEM has made significant progress since its beginning in 1994-1995 winter nursery. Exotic sources were identified that contribute to yield, grain nutritional factors, grain mold resistance, silage tonnage, silage quality, disease and insect resistance, and stress tolerance. Although these are important contributory attributes to crop improvement, commercial corn breeders are well aware of the downside of exotic germplasm-lateness and lodging particularly, and deleterious alleles for adaptability. Therefore there is an understandable reluctance to use exotic germplasm in commercial breeding programs. For the past 4 years GEM reported surprisingly good yield performance relative to the mean of the commercial checks in numerous experiments throughout the Midwest. Sixteen S2 topcrosses (Midwest data only) were found to exceed the commercial check mean in 2002 (about 1% of the 1,705 entries tested). This number is lower than previous year’s reports of 56 topcrosses reported in 2001, 94 in 2000, and 186 in 1999 (GEM Annual Reports of 2001, 2000, and 1999 respectively). This may be partially due to the improvement in caliber of hybrid checks used over time. An analysis of 3 previous years data (2001, 2000, and 1999) was made to compare other important agronomic features of the GEM S2 topcrosses such as harvest moisture (lateness), yield relative to moisture (Y/M), and lodging resistance. Data studied did not include southern sites-only Midwest locations coordinated by Ames location.

Twenty-eight S2 topcrosses were competitive to the mean of the 5 commercial checks for yield, moisture, Y/M, and lodging resistance from experiments in 1999, 2000, and 2001 (Of the approximately 336 hybrids beating the check means over the 3 years, about 8% were considered “equivalent” to the check means for all 4 agronomic traits -yield, moisture, Y/M, and lodging). Table 5 lists the 28 GEM entries involved in the topcrosses discussed. Note that CUBA164 material was involved in 5 of the topcrosses and FS8 material (derived from Florida Synthetic) in 5 topcrosses. Other GEM lines included breeding crosses derived from accessions from Mexico (5), Brazil (3), Uruguay (3), Argentina (2), Chile (2), Peru (1), and Guatemala (1). Studies are continuing to explore grain quality among these lines.

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 Table 5. GEM Lines with Good Topcross Performance in Midwest 1999 – 2001

GEM Lines Accession Origin Race/Background

AR16026:S1704-153-1

Argentina

Cristalino Colorado

AR16035:S19-161-1

Argentina

Cristalino Colorado

DKXL212:N11a-139-1-1

Brazil

Tropical Hybrid

DKXL370-:N11a20-322-1

Brazil

Tropical Hybrid

DKXL370:N11a20-604-1

Brazil

Tropical Hybrid

CH05015:N12-183-1-B

Chile

Camelia

CH05015:N15-3-1-B

Chile

Camelia

CUBA164:S1511b-325-1

Cuba

Creole/Argentino

CUBA164:S1517-163-1

Cuba

Creole/Argentino

CUBA164:S1517-241-2

Cuba

Creole/Argentino

CUBA164:S2012-444-1

Cuba

Creole/Argentino

CUBA164:S2012-966-1

Cuba

Creole/Argentino

CUBA117:S15-372-1

Cuba

Caribbean flint (Argentino)

FS8A(S):S09-362-1

Florida

Florida Synthetic (E.S. Horner)

FS8B(T):N1809-382-1

Florida

Florida Synthetic (E.S. Horner)

FS8B(T):N1802-525-1

Florida

Florida Synthetic (E.S. Horner)

FS8B(S):S0316-802-1

Florida

Florida Synthetic (E.S. Horner)

FS8B(S):S0316-814-1

Florida

Florida Synthetic (E.S. Horner)

GUAT209:N1925-81-1

Guatemala

Tusón

CHIS740:S1411a-783-82

Mexico

Tuxpeño/olotillo (white)

CHIS775:S1911b-120-1

Mexico

Tuxpeño (white)

CHIS775:S1911b-439-1

Mexico

Tuxpeño (white)

DKB844:S1601-3-2

Mexico

Tropical Hybrid

DKB844:N11b-118-1

Mexico

Tropical Hybrid

PASCO14:S0105-198-1

Peru

Cubano Amarillo

UR10001:S1813-257-1

Uruguay

Dente Branco (white dent)

UR01089:S0525-519-1

Uruguay

Cateto sulino

UR13085:N0215-14-1-B

Uruguay

Cateto sulino

GEM distributed 30 lines (F2S2 generation) released by the NC GEM program to GEM cooperators in 2002. These lines performed favorably to the check means in 2 years data over 15-17 locations in the southeast and lower Midwest. Although most are late for the Midwest, they would be interesting sources for breeding material. Some of the lines have interesting quality factors such as protein, oil, and starch. All of the breeding lines were derived from crossing the tropical commercial hybrids (donated to GEM by Dekalb), to a stiff stalk related line, and are therefore 50% tropical crosses, as shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Breeding Crosses from Raleigh Contributing to GEM Lines with
Good Topcross Performance in Southeast, South, and Lower Midwest Trials
 
Breeding Cross

No. of Selected Lines

Tropical Region

BR052051(SE32): S17 F2S2

1

Brazil

DK212T: S11 F2S2

8

Thailand

DK888: S11 F2S2

13

Thailand

DK830: S11 F2S2

1

Mexico

DK370A: S11 F2S2

4

Brazil

DKXL380: S11 F2S2

3

Brazil

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Laboratory Report

Grain Quality.

The grain quality traits on the GEM lines were measured on whole grain samples with a near infrared reflectance scanner (NIR). This is a nondestructive analysis and the data is reported on a dry matter basis (0% moisture).

Iowa 2002, the Corn Belt checks (B73, Mo17 and B73 x Mo17) averaged 12.0% protein, 3.6% oil, and 68.2% starch. The GEM Set E lines with elevated protein contents include:

DKB844:S1601-491-1-B                                16.2% Protein
DKB844:S1601-372-1-B                                14.3% Protein
DKB844:S1601-3-2-B                                    14.2% Protein
FS8B(S):S0316-53-2-B                                  15.4% Protein
FS8B(S):S0316-230-2-B                                15.0% Protein
FS8B(S):S0316-92-1-B                                  14.9% Protein
FS8B(S):S0316-20-2-B                                  14.5% Protein
FS8B(S):S0316-249-1-B                                14.5% Protein
AR17056:N2025  Select # 9-B                       16.1% Protein
AR17056:N2025  Select # 8-B                       15.1% Protein
DXKL370:N11a20-410-1-B                           15.2% Protein
DXKL370:N11a20-418-1-B                           14.1% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-9-B-B                          16.0% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-13-B-B                        15.1% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-7-B-B                          14.8% Protein
CUBA164:S15-73-5-1-B                                14.6% Protein
CUBA164:S2008a-344-B-B                           14.7% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-25-B-B                        14.6% Protein
CUBA164:S15-81-7-4-B                                14.3% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-17-B-B                        14.2% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-12-B-B                        14.1% Protein
CUBA164:S15-81-7-2-B                                14.0% Protein
CUBA164:S15-118-6-19-B-B                        14.0% Protein

 

The GEM Set G lines were grown in Iowa 2002. The lines with elevated protein contents include:

CUBA164:S2012-459-1-B                 15.7% Protein
CUBA164:S2012-947-1-B                 14.6% Protein
CUBA164:S2012-966-1-B                 14.0 % Protein
AR16026:S1704-153-1-B                  14.4% Protein
CUBA164:S1517-241-2-B                 15.9% Protein
CUBA164:S1517-52-1-B                   14.6% Protein

The North Carolina GEM lines were also grown in Iowa 2002. The lines with elevated protein contents include:

2089-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4                        17.0% Protein
2011-01_SE32_S17_F2S4                             15.0% Protein
2084-02_DK212T_S11_F2S4                        15.0% Protein
2152-03_DK888_S11_F2S4                          14.8% Protein
2253-01_XL370A_S11_F2S4                        14.2% Protein

Mike Blanco has made some selections for agronomic traits, and theses lines were evaluated  for composition evaluations. The high protein line was:  

CUBA164:S1511b-325-1-B                           16.6% protein

These corn lines with elevated protein are important because corn based animal feed is low in protein and requires the addition of supplements e.g. soybean meal to make a complete animal feed ration. Adding supplements to feed increases the cost of feeding animals and reduces profits to the farmer. Ideally, the protein content of the corn would be raised to between 15 and 18% with enhanced lysine and tryptophan amino acids.

Also of interest are lines with increased oil content. The oil percentage in the corn is important because oil when compared to starch has more energy (9 cal/g vs. 4 cal/g). The target value for oil content is 6% or higher. The Set E lines grown in Iowa 2002 with elevated oil contents include:

FS8B(S):S0316-249-1-B                                5.1% Oil
FS8B(S):S0316-230-2-B                                4.7% Oil
FS8B(S):S0316-463-1-B                                4.7% Oil
DXKL370:N11a20-290-1-B                           4.8% Oil
CUBA164:S15-73-5-1-B                                4.8% Oil
CUBA164:S15-7-9-2-B                                  4.7 % Oil
CUBA164:S15-7-9-1-B                                  4.5% Oil
CUBA164:S15-81-7-3-B                                4.5% Oil
CUBA164:S15-118-6-6-B-B                          5.4% Oil
Cuba164:S2008a-422-B-B                             4.6% Oil

Although none of the above meets the target of 6% oil, they do reflect the better GEM lines of Set E.

A Set G line grown in Iowa 2002 with elevated oil content is:

CUBA164:S1517-241-2-B                             4.8% Oil

The North Carolina GEM lines with elevated oil contents include:

2011-01_SE32_S17_F2S4                             5.1% Oil
2146-01_DK888_S11_F2S4                          4.7% Oil

From Mike Blanco’s selections the lines with interesting oil values were:

DKXL212:N11a-139-1-1-B                           5.0% Oil
AR16035:S19-161-1-B                                  4.7% Oil

The starch portion of the corn kernel is important because wet-milling extracts starch for use in food as a thickener and sweeteners, and for industrial applications in paper and plastic products. The desired value for starch content is 75% or higher. The interesting Set E lines are:

AR16026:S17-104-1-B                                  71.2% Starch
AR16026:S17-211-1-B                                  71.1% Starch
UR01089:S0525-519-1                                   71.5% Starch
Cuba164:S2008a-338-B-B                             71.2% Starch

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The North Carolina GEM line with elevated starch content was:

2201-01_DKB830_S11_F2S4                        71.3% Starch

NIR Whole Grain Composition (relative %) Mike Blanco's Selections grown in Iowa 2002

 

DMB*

DMB*

DMB*

 

Protein

Oil

Starch

AR16026:S1704-153-1-B

11.9

4.1

68.9

AR16035:S19-161-1-B

12.7

4.7

67.9

CH05015:N12-183-1-B-B

12.0

3.6

69.2

CH05015:N15-3-1-B-B

12.9

3.9

67.0

CHIS740:S1411a-783-2-B

11.7

3.9

68.3

CHIS775:S1911b-439-1-B

11.7

2.7

70.1

CUBA117:S15-372-1-B

13.2

3.9

65.6

CUBA164:S1511b-325-1-B

16.6

4.1

63.9

CUBA164:S1517-163-1-B

12.9

3.4

66.9

CUBA164:S1517-241-2-B

12.0

2.9

68.8

CUBA164:S2012-444-1-B

10.7

3.5

70.2

CUBA164:S2012-966-1-B

10.5

3.8

70.7

DKB844:N11b-118-1-B

12.5

3.7

68.6

DKB844:S1601-3-2-B

12.4

3.7

68.7

DKXL212:N11a-139-1-1-B

12.4

5.0

67.3

DKXL370:N11a20-322-B

12.9

4.2

67.4

FS8A(S):S09-362-1-B

13.7

3.9

68.1

UR01089:S0525-519-1-B

13.9

4.0

67.1

UR13085:N0215-14-1-B-B

12.2

3.1

69.4

min

10.5

2.7

63.9

max

16.6

5.0

70.7

mean

12.6

3.8

68.1

sd

1.3

0.5

1.6

 

 

 

 

Mean of Corn Belt Checks:

 

 

 

B73, Mo17, B73 x Mo17

12.0

3.6

68.2

 

 

 

 

overall min

10.5

2.7

63.9

overall max

16.6

5.0

70.7

overall mean

12.5

3.8

68.1

overall sd

1.3

0.5

1.6

*dry matter basis, adjusted for basis values are a mean of three measures.

 

NIR Whole Grain Compsition (relative %)

North Carolina GEM lines grown in Iowa 2002

 

 

 

 

 

*DMB

*DMB

*DMB

Pedigree

Protein

Oil

Starch

2011-01_SE32_S17_F2S4

15.0

5.1

66.3

2084-02_DK212T_S11_F2S4

15.0

3.1

69.0

2086-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4

13.6

2.7

69.0

2088-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4

13.2

3.1

69.2

2089-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4

17.0

3.3

66.5

2109-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4

13.7

2.9

66.9

2111-01_DK212T_S11_F2S4

12.0

3.3

70.1

2112-02_DK212T_S11_F2S4

12.2

2.5

70.6

2116-02_DK212T_S11_F2S4

12.4

3.1

69.5

2120-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.5

4.0

66.9

2127-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

12.8

3.9

68.0

2131-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.3

3.7

67.8

2132-03_DK888_S11_F2S4

12.1

3.5

69.7

2142-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

12.4

3.6

70.1

2143-02_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.1

3.6

68.5

2146-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.3

4.7

65.5

2150-01_DK888_S11_F2S4

12.9

3.2

68.5

2152-02_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.9

4.0

68.7

2152-03_DK888_S11_F2S4

14.8

4.1

67.8

2156-02_DK888_S11_F2S4

13.7

3.6

67.7

2201-01_DKB830_S11_F2S4

10.1

2.5

71.3

2226-02_XL370A_S11_F2S4

13.9

2.9

68.0

2228-03_DK370A_S11_F2S4

11.7

3.4

69.2

2250-01_XL370A_S11_F2S4

13.2

2.7

69.4

2250-02_XL370A_S11_F2S4

12.1

2.6

69.0

2253-01_XL370A_S11_F2S4

14.2

4.0

67.8

2258-03_XL380_S11_F2S4

12.5

3.3

69.3

2282-01_XL380_S11_F2S4

12.7

3.1

68.6

2283-01_XL380_S11_F2S4

11.8

2.4

70.1

min

10.1

2.4

65.5

max

17.0

5.1

71.3

mean

15.0

5.1

66.3

sd

1.3

0.7

1.4

 

 

 

 

Mean of Corn Belt Checks:

 

 

 

B73, Mo17, B73 x Mo17

12.0

3.6

68.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*dry matter basis and adjusted for bias values are a mean of three measures.

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Research Plans 2002.

  • Encourage, and participate in the release of new GEM lines (and synthetics) from germplasm that was identified in the GEM network.  Make them available through the NCRPIS with accompanying public release in Crop Science.

  • Acquire new GEM collaborators from both private and public sectors. Private collaborators are needed to expand the trial network, and provide additional nursery support to make new S1’s as key priority. Public cooperators are needed for basic and applied research studies to facilitate greater knowledge of breeding methodology with exotic germplasm, and to develop new sources of unique germplasm useful to plant breeding. Public research is also needed for molecular markers as a tool to identify (and incorporate) exotic alleles for disease, insect, mycotoxin, and value added traits. Exotic maize germplasm provides unique resources for genomics research and evolutionary relationships in the grasses.

  • Continue efforts to create and identify the best breeding crosses to accelerate development of new unique germplasm.

  • Implement the relational data base Plant Research Information Sharing Manager (PRISM) that will facilitate pedigree tracking, head to head comparisons, and linkage of Value Added Trait (VAT) data to agronomic traits.

  • Increase collaboration, and leverage results between the GEM efforts in Raleigh and Ames. Utilize Raleigh’s strengths in working 50% tropical material that is seldom possible to do adequately in the Midwest. Enhance Raleigh’s efforts by making top crosses with inbred testers, etc.

 

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We are grateful to our Cooperators for their support!

 


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Contact us | Home | USDA | ARS | NCRPIS | ISU | Corn Breeding | January 18, 2006