Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

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GEM - 2001 Annual Report

2001 Accomplishments

Ames Location

  • Nearly 15,700 yield plots were conducted at or coordinated from Ames (3,700 more than in 2000).

  • Eighteen breeding crosses were selected for advancement by Ames.

  • From Sets A through D, 112 S3 line bulks have been through second year yield tests, and 232 are available to cooperators for their own evaluations and breeding.

  • In trials at Ames, 56 topcrossed S2 lines from GEM breeding crosses beat the average of commercial check hybrids.

  • Our yearly field day was held on September 19 at the CAD Uthe farm in Ames.

  • A total of 12 public cooperator projects were partially supported financially by GEM.

  • GEM gained the private cooperator Agrigenetics, Inc. d/b/a Mycogen seeds, the international cooperator Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA) from Argentina, and the public cooperators Marcelo Carena (North Dakota State University), David Willmott (USDA-ARS, Columbia MO), Koushik Seetharaman (Pennsylvania State University), Susana Goggi (Iowa State University), and Jay-lin Jane (Iowa State University). 

  • GEM  breeding crosses (new since 2000) had grain composition values of 9.9 to 14.7% protein, 3.3 to 5.4% oil, and  65.5 to 70.5% starch on a dry matter basis.

  • GEM lines for release from North Carolina had grain composition values of 10.0 to 14.2% protein, 2.9 to 4.7% oil and 66.2 to 69.9% starch on a dry matter basis.

  • GEM Set C lines for release grown in Puerto Rico had grain composition values of 10.15 to 14.69% protein, 2.92 to 5.62% oil and 66.13 to 70.64% starch on a dry matter basis.

  • GEM Set C lines for release grown in Hawaii had grain composition values of 9.90 to 14.96% protein, 3.89 to 5.76% oil and 65.31 to 70.19% starch on a dry matter basis.

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Raleigh Location

  • Over16,000 yield trial plots at 21 locations were conducted at or coordinated through the Raleigh location in 2001.

  • Over 200 entries were in second year trials; over 1200 entries were in first year trials.

  • Thirteen cooperators (8 companies, 3 universities, and 2 ARS) grew GEM trials coordinated through the Raleigh location at 21 locations across the south, east, and Midwest.

  • Approximately 30 GEM 50% tropical breeding populations are at various stages of advancement at the Raleigh location.

  • Over 800 GEM entries were testcrossed either by hand or in isolation blocks at Raleigh this summer. Additional entries will be testcrossed this winter.

  • Approximately 1000 nursery rows were devoted to advancing GEM materials at Raleigh along with over 1800 observation plots.

  • Over 500 rows of disease plots devoted to GEM materials were grown in 2001.

  • 41 advanced GEM lines were increased for release and sent to Ames for value testing and release. 

  • A new seed storage unit is being built at Raleigh to handle the increasing volume of seed generated by GEM. A new (but used) van has been transferred to the project.

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Public Cooperators Supported by GEM in 2001

  • Javier Betran ($2,000; Texas A&M) Our goal is to develop food-grade corn maize inbreds with superior grain quality and adaptation to the Southern USA. We have advanced and selected GEM derived lines considering grain quality attributes, less susceptibility to biotic stresses (e.g. aflatoxin) and tolerance to abiotic stresses (e.g. drought and high temperatures). We are now in the phase of characterizing more extensively the advanced lines for additional selection before release. In general, GEM testcrosses appeared to perform better in transitional areas between subtropical and temperate environments. 
     

  • Mark Campbell ($4,000; Truman State University)  Our goal is to identify modifying genes from GEM accessions that, together with the recessive amylose extender (ae) mutation, increase starch amylose content to 70% (amylomaize VII) or greater. Many F4 families evaluated in 2000 showed relatively high-amylose levels compared to the B73 ae check. Although the data summary indicates that lines derived from CUBA110:N1711c x (OH43ae x H99ae) were slightly higher in amylose (63.3%) compared to GUAT209:S13 x (H99ae x OH43ae) (61.0%) the GUAT lines had a large number (n=14) of families that exceeded 70%. In fact the maximum value for the GUAT families (78.6%) far exceeded that the maximum observed for CUBA (66.0%). We are currently conducting amylose testing for F5 materials harvested from the 2001 season and preliminary results indicate that the high amylose levels are being inherited. F5 families showing high amylose levels were crossed to many GEM lines. These materials will be advanced in a winter nursery and F2 plant sevaluated in the summer of 2002. If the high-amylose phenotypes can be recovered in the F2’s the trait will be backcrossed into the GEM materials.
     

  • Jim Coors ($5,050; University of Wisconsin) The UW corn breeding program has been an active cooperator with the GEM project since 1995, and our objective was initially to determine if GEM germplasm would contribute to the development of high-yielding and high-nutritive value silage hybrids. In 2001we conducted two trials involving GEM topcrosses to estimate silage yield and nutritive value of the most productive GEM. The first trial (GEMA) included 10 topcrosses involving four GEM S3 bulks (three from CUBA164 and one from SCRO1 previously shown to have silage potential) and one breeding cross (CUBA164:S1517 crossed to commercial testers, six entries derived Wisconsin Quality, and nine commercial hybrids. The second trial (GEMB) involved 23 GEM topcrosses and nine experimental and commercial hybrids. The GEM topcrosses involved inbreds derived from CHO5015, CHIS775, DKB844, DKXL212, DKXL370, and UR13085 crossed to LH198. These breeding crosses had previously been shown to have good grain yield. In GEMA GEM topcrosses yielded well for the most part, but forage quality tended to be lower than desired, at least relative to the high-quality checks. As a result, Milk/acre tended to be low to intermediate with the exception of Cuba164:S1517 X LH283, Cuba164:S2008a-280-1-B X LH283, and  SCRO1:N1310-398-1-B X LH198. Additional inbreds are being developed from Cuba164:S1517 and SCRO1:N1310-398-1-B in the UW silage breeding nursery. In GEMB there were a large number of productive topcrosses based on yield. Nine were equivalent to the highest yielding check hybrid, Pioneer brand 33A14. Quality was also excellent, in general, with 18 GEM topcrosses equivalent to Pioneer brand hybrids 33A14 and 35R58. Of particular note were four topcrosses: CH05015:N15-8-1-B X LH198 with excellent NDF, IVD,IVNDFD, and starch; CHIS775:N1912-321-1 X LH198 with excellent yield and high protein; DKXL212:N11a-481-1-1 X LH198 with excellent yield and low NDF; and finally DKXL370:N11a20-97-1 X LH198 with excellent yield, NDF, IVD, IVNDFD, CP, and starch. The relative maturities of these topcrosses are also appropriate for southern Wisconsin.  Additional line development was done in the inbred breeding nursery.
     

  • Larry Darrah ($4,400; USDA-ARS at Columbia MO) We seek to expand the germplasm base of our project and identify new germplasm that crosses well with either our domestic (Stiff Stalk, Lancaster, and white) or exotic (CarPop) germplasm. Of particular interest to us would be a good combiner for CarPop because of its high quality, flint-type grain. Random sets of lines from two GEM populations have been in various testcrosses and selected progeny identified for further development. Our testers have included Mo17 Synthetic(H14)C4, Mo17 Elite Syn.(R20)C4, CarPop(E5)C5, and Missouri’s White Synthetic Tester. The first two are yellow synthetics made up from various commercial versions of Mo17, and the third is a population originating with Everett Gerrish, formerly of Cargill Hybrid Seeds, which has a large component of tropical dent Tuxpeño. The broad-based White Synthetic Tester includes several strains, representing public and private germplasm with white endosperm.
     

  • James Hawk ($10,000; University of Delaware) Our goal is to develop inbred lines from GEM breeding crosses adapted to the Mid-Atlantic and Corn Belt regions with good per se and testcross performance, resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, and that have high levels of grain protein, starch, or oil content. We also grow yield tests for the Raleigh location. The top fourteen DKXL212:N11a lines from the 2000 yield and per se performance results were testcrossed to LH198 and a proprietary B73 line. These hybrids including five commercial checks were planted across the Corn Belt with GEM cooperators at 18 locations with 25 reps. Based on the yield results of experiments 1121A and 1121B and per se evaluations, inbred lines DKXL212:N11a-365-1-1-2-1-1, DKXL212:N11a-338-1-1-1, and DKXL212:N11a-139-1-1 have potential in breeding programs for improving both agronomic and disease performance. Reducing husk coverage by an additional generation of recycling these lines with elite temperate germplasm could enhance both grain drydown and agronomic performance.
     

  • Bruce Hibbard ($4,500; USDA-ARS at Columbia MO) This project facilitates the development of native sources of resistance to the corn rootworm larval feeding. Previously, we evaluated all of the original GEM accessions, all available 50% exotic GEM breeding crosses, and half of the available 25% exotic GEM breeding crosses for resistance to western corn rootworm and European corn borer larval feeding. At each step, those materials with rootworm resistance were evaluated again the following year and incorporated into our breeding program if resistance was also found the second year of evaluation. In 2001, we evaluated the second half of the 25% exotic GEM breeding crosses for both corn rootworm resistance and resistance to first and second generation European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), the other major insect pest of corn. In corn rootworm evaluations, no statistically significant differences were observed. One cross, AR17056:N2025 was only slightly more damaged than the insecticide control. A total of 64 of the 84 crosses were nominally less damaged than the resistant control used in this study, but the resistant control had more than one node of roots destroyed (it was a poor resistant control in this location this year). A total of 17 lines had a damage rating less than 0.7 and could be considered somewhat resistant. Only four lines were more damaged than the susceptible control. Elite, modern hybrids are somewhat tolerant to corn rootworm larval injury (Riedell and Evenson 1993) and since 75% of this genes in the lines evaluated in 2001 were elite, some of the resistance found in these materials were likely contributed by the elite parent. In European corn borer leaf feeding evaluations, all entries but two were less damaged than the susceptible check WF9´W182E. A total of 26 lines were less damaged than the resistant control, Mycogen 7250, for leaf feeding. In European corn borer stalk tunneling evaluations, 42 lines were less damaged than the resistant check Mycogen 7250. UR13010:N0613, BVIR155:S2012, BR51501:N11a08d, and DK212T:N11a12 were particularly resistant to tunnel feeding by European corn borer larvae with only 1.27, 1.27, 1.52, and 1.78 cm of tunneling. Only six lines were more susceptible to tunnel feeding by European corn borer larvae than the susceptible check, WF9´W182E. Overall, several lines appear to show promise for resistance to corn rootworm and/or European corn borer larval feeding. Lines with the greatest resistance will be evaluated again and incorporated into our breeding program.
     

  • Robert Lambert ($5,000; University of Illinois) This project has been selecting corn lines in two GEM crosses (DREP150:N20 and BR51501:N11a12) for the past 3.5 years. Selection has been for enhanced multiple disease resistance, improved starch content and grain yields based on testcross performance. Initially about 1,000 plants were evaluated for multiple disease resistance in each cross and about 100 S0 plants self pollinated in each population. These have been inoculated with multiple diseases and the most resistant plants selfed each generation. From 1998 to 2000 the number of lines has been reduced to about ten lines of DREP150:N20 and six lines of BR51501:N11a12. Twenty-seven experimental crosses were grown in performance trials at 4 locations with two reps at each location in 2001. Two of the three experimental hybrids produced yields similar to the check hybrids. Stalk lodging for these hybrids was below the mean and varied from 2 to 8%. Grain moisture at harvest was also normal at each location (range 15% to 23%). Grain sample of these materials will be assayed for oil, protein, and starch values. Preliminary results are encouraging and continued inbreeding and selection plus tests for combining ability with elite inbreds needs to be done.
     

  • Richard Pratt ($4,000; Ohio State University) Our goal is to evaluate and identify superior progenies from the GEM population FS8(A):S09 suitable for release and further development as inbred lines which also impart value-added characteristics to hybrids produced from them. Selected S2 progenies were testcrossed to two non-Stiff Stalk proprietary inbreds by a private cooperator during winter 2000-01. Experiments were grown in Ohio, Iowa, and Illinois (total of 9 replications at 7 locations). Line 362-1 by tester nSS1 was competitive in comparison with the mean value of the six commercial checks in the Iowa test but its performance was below average in the Illinois and Ohio tests. Performance of the line 43-2 was essentially equal to that of the mean of the commercial checks in the Illinois and Ohio tests but below average in the Iowa tests. In general, the better experimental testcrosses displayed harvest moisture values lower than those of the checks, and stalk quality that was approximately the same. Progeny were also selected for another experiment based on kernel protein composition values. High and low protein lines were testcrossed by low protein inbred B73 by the OSU project and by an elite high protein proprietary inbred by the ISU/ARS project. Testcrosses were planted in four-row plots in Iowa and Ohio. Grain samples will be analyzed during the winter of 2000-2001.
     

  • Ken Russell ($5,000; University of Nebraska) Our goal is to develop and release germplasm with significantly lower levels in the concentration of total phosphorus in the grain [P-Gr] compared to current elite germplasm. In many commercial hybrids the level of phosphorus is double the dietary needs of yearling beef cattle. The excess phosphorus is excreted in the manure and becomes a potential pollutant. Recently, considerable effort by the USDA and private companies has gone into the development of low-phytate corn. Cattle, however, are able to digest phytate. Because the concentration of total phosphorus is largely unchanged in the low phytate mutants, these specialty corns will not remedy the problem of too much phosphorus in the diet of corn-fed beef. The average of [P-Gr] across 30 GEM breeding crosses ranged from a low of 0.21% in CHIS740:S1411a to a high of 0.42% in UR13061:S05. The average among all breeding crosses was 0.30%. The average of the three Corn Belt F2s was 0.31%. In addition, within most breeding crosses and F2s, the range of [P-Gr] values was large. Based on the frequency of ears with a value of [P-Gr] less than 0.25%, CHIS740:S1411a and DK844:N11b17 were the two sources identified as being most worthy for more extensive sampling. In 2001, approximately 100 self-pollinations were made in each of these breeding crosses for phosphorus analysis. 100 S1 families from self-pollinated ears produced in 2000 with the lowest level of [P-Gr], regardless of the parental GEM breeding cross or Corn Belt F2, were grown in two replications, one 15-foot row per replication, with four checks. Approximately two-thirds of these S1s were from breeding crosses of non-Stiff-Stalk parentage and the remainder from breeding crosses of Stiff-Stalk parentage. Five sib pollinations, using different plants as males and females, were made per row for both phosphorus and protein analysis. The most promising material will continue to be self-pollinated and selected with the goal of developing one or more inbreds with a low level of [P-Gr]. 
     

  • Margaret Smith ($5,000; Cornell University) Anthracnose stalk rot (ASR), caused by Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces.) G.W. Wils., causes stalk rot problems and contributes to increased lodging. The only economically feasible control of ASR is through resistant varieties and cultural practices that reduce disease incidence. Recent research has focused on exotic sources for improved ASR resistance, given the limited resistance available in temperate maize germplasm. This project aims to develop new maize inbreds with excellent resistance to ASR (derived from the tropical germplasm sources used) and good agronomic quality, yield potential, and temperate adaptation (derived from the proprietary temperate inbreds crossed to the exotic populations). Populations selected based on per se anthracnose stalk rot resistance (evaluated in 1995) and testcross yield potential (evaluated in 1996) were FS8B(T):N1802, CH04030:S0906, AR01150:N0406, and GOQUEEN:N1603. The major accomplishment for this project to date is the development of advanced breeding lines (nearly finished inbreds) that are showing excellent resistance to anthracnose stalk rot. Resistance in the best of these materials is better than that available in currently released U.S. inbreds. Simultaneous selection for agronomic performance has identified the more promising fraction of these resistant selections, although only a few breeding lines appear to be competitive with current commercial hybrids in yield and standability. Finally, the process of anthracnose stalk rot inoculation and selection has contributed to new understanding of the appropriate basis for selection, by revealing that plants with little stalk rot in the inoculated internode likely represent partial escapes rather than truly resistant plants and should not be selected.
     

  • W. Paul Williams ($3,000; USDA-ARS, Mississippi State, MS) Our goal is to identify maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin and southwestern corn borer for use in developing germplasm lines and populations that will be publically released. We evaluated the Set A S3 bulk lines in 2001 for (1) aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with an Aspergillus flavus spore suspension and (2) aflatoxin accumulation and ear damage from insect feeding following inoculation of ears with a fungal spore suspension and infestation with southwestern corn borer. Aflatoxin analyses are still in progress.
     

  • Dennis West ($5,000; University of Tennessee) Our goal is to develop new white-grain maize lines with desirable milling characteristics and competitive yield from GEM populations. In 2001, 993 experimental hybrids were evaluated in 18 yield trials in Tennessee. These hybrids were crosses between GEM lines and adapted germplasm. Several experimental hybrids were competitive with the commercial check hybrids included in these trials. XL370A_S11F2S3xLH287 yielded 50 bu/a more than the average of 5 check hybrids, and DK212TN11F1S1XT8 produced 30 bu/a more than the check average. The best lines from the GEM accessions will be selected for further testing and incorporation into value-added breeding for new white-grain lines. Inbreeding and selection was continued in populations resulting from crosses between GEM lines identified in previous trials, and 24 new GEM lines were crossed with adapted elite germplasm in 2001 to initiate additional populations for selection.
     

  • Wenwei Xu ($5,000; Texas A&M in Lubbock) Our goal is to develop corn inbreds with drought tolerance, heat tolerance, corn earworm (CEW) resistance, and good yield potential from GEM germplasm for corn production in Texas and the southern United States. In the last three years, a total of 140 GEM breeding crosses have been evaluated under different water treatments in Texas. Superior GEM breeding crosses have been identified for yield, drought tolerance and CEW resistance. Under moderate drought stress, ANTIGO01:S01, BR5150:S11a20, CUBA164:S20, CHRIS775:S19, DK844:S16, DK830:S19, FS8B(T):N11a08b, FS8B(T):N11a08c, DK888:N11a08b, UR1001:N1708e perform well. Under severe post-tassel drought stress, CML325:S18, CML287:S18, CML325:S11, DK212T:S06, DK212T:S0620, DK888:N11a08a, FB8B(T):N11a08c, and GUAT209:N1925 yielded well. BR105:N16, BVIR103:S04, Cuba164:S20, CUBA117:S15, DKXL380:S08a, DK830:S19, DK888:N11a08f, GUAT209:N19, GUAT209:S1308b, and PASCO14:N24 show good CEW resistance. Inbred lines are being developed from these GEM germplasm.
     

  • Raleigh Public Cooperators: Major Goodman (NC State U.), Neil Widstrom (USDA-ARS, Tifton, GA), Jim Hawk (U. of Delaware), Dennis West (U. of Tennessee).

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Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Meetings

 

December 5, 2000, Chicago, IL:  Changes that will occur: A GEM coordinator (Category 4 USDA-ARS service scientist) will be hired at the PI Station, administrative oversight changed from Les Lewis’s unit to Candy Gardner’s, Linda will concentrate on value-added breeding/research on the GEM materials, a technician will be hired to support the coordinator, Sue will report to PI and support Linda’s research, David Willmott will be working 50% for GEM (research in molecular markers) at Columbia MO, and new facilities will be built at PI. Issues on intellectual properties were discussed but no resolutions were reached.

March 6, 2001, Urbana, IL:  The TSG recommended that a database manager be hired without waiting for the new coordinator hire. There was extensive debate about when, or if, S2 lines developed by private cooperators are released to all cooperators.  The group agrees to write in some additional requests into the protocol:

  • Underline requirement to return S1s and strongly encourage companies return S2 as opposed to S2 synthetics.

  • Request that everyone that selected S2s in topcross onto commonly known lines for 2nd year yield trials return the S2 seed next year.

  • The committee requested that the coordinator follow up on the above details to assure seed comes back in a timely fashion. For example, S1s should be returned by June in the year of S2 topcross trials. Seed of S1s from older trials should not be sent back until cold room is completed this fall.

For analysis of GEM materials for value-added traits, it was suggested to favor released lines. The data continues to indicate that potential of a accession is frequently not seen until the material is combined with temperate germplasm. A new contributor’s agreement was approved for use.

September 18 and 19, 2001, Ames, IA:  The lobbying effort will be handled by Dave Bubeck, Tom Hoegemeyer, and Joel Holthaus. Future budget projections were discussed. David Willmott discussed opportunities to incorporate biotech research into GEM.

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Personnel Update

 

Ames:  Again in 2001, Mack Shen continued as acting Data Manager and Penny Meyerholz continued as temporary Agricultural Research Technician but spent most of her time supporting GEM. 

Raleigh:  Joe Hudyncia is a field technician assigned to the GEM program. Vickie Brewster is continuing to serve as a Support Scientist, with 40% of her time devoted to GEM data compilation, regional yield trial coordination, and disease trait evaluation.

TSG:  Jim Deutsch from Garst, Joel Holthaus from Holden’s, and Kevin Montgomery from Golden Harvest were elected to replace Jerry Arnold, Dave Harper, and Ron Walejko, respectively.  

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Publicity

  • Goodman, M.M., and Carson, M.L. 2001. Reality vs. Myth: Corn breeding, exotics, and genetic engineering.  Proc.  55th Ann. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. 55: (in press).

  • F.J. Betrán, Tom Isakeit, Gary Odvody. 2000. Maize resistance to aflatoxin in Texas. p 150 in proceedings of the Aflatoxin/Fumonisin Workshop 2000, October 25-27, 2000, Yosemite, CA.

  • F.J. Betrán, Tom Isakeit, Gary Odvody. 2000. Aflatoxin resistance of maize germplasm in Texas. In Agronomy Abstracts. Minneapolis, MN.

  • Campbell, M.R, H. Yeager, N. Abdubek, L.M.  Pollak and, D.V. Glover. 2002. Comparison of Methods for Amylose Screening Among Amylose-Extender (ae) Maize Starches from Exotic Backgrounds. Cereal Chemistry. Accepted for publication.

  • Nurtay Abdubeck. Comparison of methods for amylose screening among ae maize starches with GEM and other plant introduction background. Annual meeting of the American Association of Cereal Chemistry. Kansas City, Missouri.  November 2000.

  • Weldekidan, T. and J.A. Hawk. 2001. Evaluation and breeding in GEM populations for agronomic performance and adaptation to the Mid-Atlantic and Corn-Belt. Proc. 56th N.E. Corn Improvement Conference (NEC29): 7-11.

  • Xu, W.W. S. Machado, L. Pollak, and T. L. Archer. 2001. Measuring drought responses of diverse corn genotypes with canopy temperature and reflectance. 2001 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings Abstract c01-xu111423-P in a CD-ROM. Charlotte, NC, Oct. 20-25, 2001.

  • Pratt, R.C., P.E. Lipps, G. Bigirwa, and D.T. Kyetere. 2000. Germplasm enhancement through cooperative research and breeding using elite tropical and U.S. Corn Belt maize germplasm. Afr. Crop Science Jour. 8:345-353.

  • Abel, Craig A., Linda M. Pollak, Wilfredo Salhuana , Mark P. Widrlechner, and Richard L. Wilson. 2001. Registration of GEMS-0001 maize germplasm resistant to leaf blade, leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. Crop Sci. 41:1651-1652.

  • Pollak, Linda and Wilfredo Salhuana. 2001. U.S. Germplasm enhancement for maize project (U.S.-GEM). In H.D. Cooper and C. Spillane (eds.). Bradening the Genetic Bases of Crop Production. IPGRI/FAO, Rome.

  • Pollak, L. 2001. Diversifying maize varieties. In Reed Herford and Sue Schram, eds. Food: The Whole World’s Business.  Assoc. for Int. Agric. Rural Development. Pp. 99-102.

  • Singh, S.K., L.A. Johnson, L.M. Pollak, and C.R. Hurburgh. 2001. Compositional, physical, and wet-milling properties of accessions used in the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project. Cereal Chem. 78:330-335.

  • Singh, S.K., L.A. Johnson, L.M. Pollak, and C.R. Hurburgh. 2001. Heterosis in compositional, physical, and wet-milling properties of adapted x exotic corn crosses. Cereal Chem. 78:336-341.

  • Singh, S.K., L.A. Johnson, P.J. White, J.-L Jane, and L.M. Pollak. 2001. Thermal properties and paste and gel behaviors of starches recovered from accessions used in the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project. Cereal Chem. 78:315-321.

  • Ji, Y., K. Seetharaman, L.M. Pollak, S. Duvick, J.-L. Jane, and P.J. White. 2001. Functional and structural properties of unusual starches from developmental corn lines. AACC Annual Meetings, Charlotte, NC, Oct. 14-18, 2001.

  • Pollak, L.M.  2001. The development of maize materials with specific qualities to meet novel demands. VII Congreso Nacional de Maiz. Pergamino, Argentina, Nov. 7-9, 2001 (invited).

  • Pollak, L.M. 2001. Desarrollo de maíces con características específicas para satisfacer nuevas demandas.  WWW.fyo.com

  • Roseboro, Ken. 2001. Iowa State’s GEM Project 2000 Report. Seed World (January):19.

  • Anderson, Carol. 2001. New corn lines offer much promise. Iowa Farm Bureau Spokesman (September 29).

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 2001 Cooperative Nursery Work

Private In-kind Nursery Support – Summer 2001

Company

Breeding Cross

Aventis Make S1's in FS8B(S):S03

Beck's

Advance to S2's their own CH05015:N1206 (share with GEM)

Bo-Jac

Regenerations

Cerestar

Wet milling evaluations of Set C lines

Mycogen

Advance to S2's BR51501:S11a17 (from Maharlika)

Monsanto

Advance to S2's their own CH05015:N1502

FFR

Make S1's in NEI9008:S17b16

Garst

Advance to S2's their own CH05015:N1219

Akkadix (frm Global)

Make S1's in UR13088:S06

Golden Harv

Advance to S2's FS8B(S):S17a
Advance to S2's FS8B(S):S17b
Regenerations
GEM Set C increases in 3 locations
Make S1's in NEI9008:S17a15
Make S1's in BIGWHITE:S12
Seed quality experiment

Great Lakes

Advance to S2's their own AR01150:S01

Hoegemeyer

Testcross FS8B(S):S0316 S2's
Seed quality experiment

Holdens

Recombine selected lines of UR10001:S1813
Recombine selected lines of FS8B(S):S0301
Advance to S2's DKXL212:N11a01 from Garst 2000
Advance to S2's' BARBGP2:N08a18 from Maharlika

Limagrain

Advance bulked S2's of their PASCO14:N0424
Advance to S2's CH04030:S09 from Bo-Jac

National Starch

Advance to S2's DK212T:N11a12 from Maharlika (share with NC+)
Recombine selected lines of CUBA164:S15

NC+

Advance to S2's DK212T:N11a12 from Maharlika (share with National Starch)

Novartis

Major's

Pau Seeds

Make S1's in NEI9008:S17c21

Pioneer

Advance to S2's their own AR17056:N2035 (share with GEM)
Advance to S2's their own AR01150:N0407 (share with GEM)

Professional Seed Res.

Disease evaluations

Wilson

Advance to S2's CUBA164:S2012 from Maharlika and FFR

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Private In-kind Nursery Support – Winter 2001-2002

Company

Breeding Cross

Beck's Hybrids

Topcross their S2's of CH05015:N1206

Bo-Jac Hybrid

Breeding Crosses

FFR Cooperative

Regenerations

Garst Seed Company

Topcross their S2's of CH05015:N1219

Golden Harvest

Topcross their S2's of FS8B(S):S17a
Topcross their S2's of FS8B(S):S17b
Regenerate one breeding cross

Great Lakes Hybrid

Topcross their S2's of AR01150:S01

Holden's Foundation Seeds

Topcross their S2's of DKXL212:N11a01
Topcross their S2's of BARBGP2:N08a

INTA

Making breeding crosses

Limagrain Genetics

Topcross their (bulked) S2's of PASCO14:N0424
Topcross their S2's of CH04030:S09
Breeding Crosses

Maharlika Genetics

Make S1's in NEI9004:S2818
Make S1's in MD1022:N2120
Make S1's in BR051675:N0620
Make S1's in BR52060:S0210

Monsanto

Topcross their S2's of CH05015:N1502
Make S1's in UR05071:S0415

Mycogen

Topcross their S2's of BR51501:S11a17

National Starch

Recombine selected lines of CUBA164:S15

NC+ Hybrids

Topcross their S2's of DK212T:N11a12
Breeding Crosses

Novartis

Major's

PAU Seeds

Breeding Crosses

Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l

Topcross their S2's of AR17056:N2035
Topcross their S2's of AR01150:N0407
Make S1's in NEI9004:S2818
Make S1's in MDI022:N2120

Wilson Genetics LLC

Topcross their S2's of CUBA164:S2012

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2001 Cooperative Yield Testing

In all, there were 30 experiments ranging from 2 to 26 replications, with a total of 238.

 

Plots with Private Cooperators: 11229
Plots with Public Cooperators:  522
Plots in Ames: 3925
TOTAL MIDWEST YIELD PLOTS: 15676

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2001 GEM Yield Test Entries

 

50% tropical breeding crosses: 147
25% tropical breeding crosses: 1233
50% temperate breeding crosses: 217
25% temperate breeding crosses: 430
Other breeding crosses: 188
Set B Re-test: 138
Total Entries 2353

 

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Yield Trial Information

Experiment
Cooperator
Making
Topcross
%Exotic
Tester
Zone
Number
of Entries
Number
of Replications

01121A

GEM

50%

SS

tropical

20

26

01121B

GEM

50%

SS

tropical

20

26

01122

GEM

50%

SS

tropical

107

6

01131

Hoegemeyer

25%

nSS

tropical

173

6

01132

Mycogen

25%

SS

tropical

50

5

01133

Garst

25%

nSS

tropical

140

6

01134

GH

25%

nSS

tropical

150

7

01135

LH

25%

SS

tropical

55

6

01136

LH

25%

SS

tropical

158

6

01137

PAU

25%

SS

tropical

70

6

01138

Pioneer

25%

nSS

tropical

200

6

01139

GEM

25%

nSS

tropical

39

6

011310

GEM

25%

nSS

tropical

113

6

011311

Monsanto

25%

nSS

tropical

98

6

01501

GEM

 

SS

temperate

110

6

01521

GEM

50%

nSS

temperate

121

4

01522

GH

50%

SS

temperate

50

9

01523

GEM

50%

nSS

temperate

101

6

01531

Mycogen

25%

nSS

temperate

90

6

01533

AgReliant

25%

nSS

temperate

100

6

01534

NC+

25%

nSS

temperate

80

6

01535

GEM

25%

SS

temperate

50

6

01601

GEM

Both

SS

Both

38

9

01602

GEM

Both

SS

Both

43

9

01603

GEM

Both

nSS

Both

53

7

01604

GEM

Both

nSS

Both

54

8

01606

GEM

Both

SS

Both

31

7

01607

GEM

Both

SS

Both

31

7

01608

GEM

Both

nSS

Both

38

9

01609

GEM

both

nSS

both

38

9

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Summary of Yield Trial 2001

Experiment
Cooperators
Making Topcross
Tester Type
Number
of Entries
Number
of Replications

30

11

14-SS, 16-nSS

2353

238

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Yield Trial Data Availability  

The GEM Project Data will be available via the GEM web site at:

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~usda-gem/

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POPGEM

 

In 2001, the second year of the POPGEM program, 10 private cooperating companies and 3 public cooperators were involved with the program. Per the protocol for year 2, private cooperators crossed their inbred lines to 8 of the initial 10 public populations. Because of limited seed supply, crosses were not made to the Missouri Supergold or the Missouri South American populations in 2001, but they were sufficiently sampled in the first year of crosses. Per the protocol, in 2001, public breeders intermated the crosses made by private companies in the first year.

Additional POPGEM work in the Iowa State University breeding program included crossing 3 dent corn populations to the POPGEM populations: Leaming was crossed to Supergold, Midland was crossed to Amber Pearl, and Hallauer Long Ear was crossed to South American. Also, based on 2000 data, the best popping 50% and 25% original GEM dent lines were intermated within the Stiff Stalk group (54 lines) and the Non Stiff Stalk group (17 lines). The above crosses were made to develop material for the next phase of the POPGEM protocol. Seventy-one of the better popping original 50% and 25% GEM dent populations were grown for a second year of evaluation along with 40 inbred lines developed from them.

 

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Laboratory Report

Grain Quality

The GEM breeding crosses for 2000 were evaluated for composition using the near infrared scanner (NIR) and samples of whole grain. To generate the data, the bulked corn was sampled twice and mean calculated for the two measures. The dry matter compositions for hybrid Corn Belt corn are generally found to be 9 to 11% protein, 3 to 4% oil and 69 to 70% starch. The GEM breeding crosses had a wider range of values than the Corn Belt corn. The dry matter compositions ranged from 9.9 to 14.7% protein, 3.3 to 5.4% oil and 65.5 to 70.5% starch. It was interesting to see that a GEM accession, Big White, when in a 50% cross (Big White:S30) had 13.4% protein and 4.3% oil but when it was in a 75% cross (Big White:S0330) it had elevated protein and oil contents of 14.7% protein and 4.8% oil. 

In the Set A lines for release grown in Iowa 2000 and measured using the NIR procedure the lines were found to have a range of 10.4 to 15.1% protein, 3.3 to 5.0%oil and 64.7 to 70% starch. Some of the lines with interesting values from Set A included CUBA164:S2008a –6-1-B-B-sib with 15.1% protein and quite a few lines derived from CH05015:N15 and :N12 with over 70% starch as well as one line from each of UR13085:N0215 and FS8B(T):N1802.

In the Set B lines for release grown in Clinton, IL in 2000 the ranges for means of the composition for protein were: 9.4 to 14.6%, oil: 2.7 to 5.8% and starch: 65.3 to 72.9%. Lines with interesting values were a CUBA164:S15 S3 line with 14.6% protein, an AR16035:S02 S3 line with 14.0% protein and an AR01150:N04 S3 line with 14.4% protein. In the lines for release from Raleigh, the ranges in values for protein were 10.0 to 14.2 protein, 2.9 to 4.7% oil and 66.2 to 72.4% starch.

In one GEM related experiment, the S1 ears from AR17056:N2025 (total of 788 ears) were evaluated for composition and were found to have a very wide range of values including 8.88 to 14.8% protein, 3.9 to 5.3% oil and 65.0 to 72.4% starch. Some of these lines will be used in  an experiment by Dr. Linda Pollak and Dr. David Willmott to look at QTL’s for quality traits.

Several data sets are being compiled to evaluate location effects on composition. Fifty lines from the Set C lines for release were grown in both Hawaii and Puerto Rico 2000 summer nurseries. The ranges for composition from Puerto Rico included 10.15 to 14.69% protein, 2.92 to 5.62% oil and 66.13 to 70.64% starch compared to 10.92% protein, 3.51% oil and 70.22% starch for the mean of the check samples. The ranges for the Hawaii location were somewhat broader with 9.90 to 14.96% protein, 3.89 to 5.76% oil and 65.31 to 70.19% starch compared to check mean of 11.53% protein, 4.48% oil and 68.37% starch.

Research Plans

The GEM lines identified for starch qualities have been evaluated over several locations and several unique starch lines have been identified that are expected to have industrial applications. These lines have been advanced increased in volume and can be extracted on a larger scale to supply more starch for advanced testing and applications. The starches will be tested for specific qualities including rheological properties using the rapid Viscoanalyzer, amylose and amylopectin contents using the Potentimetric Titrator, and several tests to determine the structural and chemical compositions using the high-pressure liquid chromatograph. Several advanced lines have already been extensively analyzed and have low onset temperatures of gelatinization and small granule size, yet others have normal granule size yet still have low onset temperatures of gelatinization. This is a very unusual finding. Work on these advanced lines is being funded by the Iowa Corn Promotion Board. These key points of information on the GEM starch lines will enable the lines to be selected by industry partners for commercial application.

 

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We are grateful to our Cooperators for their support!

 


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Contact us | Home | USDA | ARS | NCRPIS | ISU | Corn Breeding | January 11, 2006