Untitleddocument exam1
  Sociohistorical
	- The history and community of relationship
Theoretical
	- Ideas and Beliefs about relationship
Practical
	- Ritual activities to foster relationship

Orthodoxy
	- beliefs to be very important
Orthopraxis
	- actions and ritual is more important than beliefs

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Sociohistorical


Hinduism (Not missionary usually)
	Not an indigenous term
	Coined by British in 18/19th C.
	Not a term most insiders use
	Some elite use "Sanatana Dharma"(Eternal Law)
	Indian law defines Hindus as anyone who is not "Christian Muslim, Jew, or Parsi"
	900 million - 1 billion people
	4th largest religion
	U.S has 8th largest population
	
	Also influential in South America, Pakistan, Indonesia

Harappan Civilization 
	3000 to 2750 B.C.E also called Dravidians
	Known by archaeological record;
	Goddess worship predominant
	Amulets with stylized carvings, Animals and tree worship
	Decline or transformation in 1750 BCE

Sruti: The Vedas Sacred(scripture of Indo-European people (1500-600 BCE) )
	Incorporated and retooled Harappan religion
	Universe -> Oral -> Written
	Sanskrit, an elite language
	Hymns to worship, ritual guides, and counsel for religious retreats
	Incantations, Spells. Fire and offerings of nectar were important.
	Original eternal truth/ law/ sound
	Nature of reality, though not revealed by a single deity.
	
	Prayer to Agni: Fire/Sun/Power
		Sacrifice through transformation
		Rig Veda
		Agni transmutes material sacrifices into spiritual smoke
		Forms a mediating point with Divine Power
		Model for priests who mediate for public
		Transporter of Dead
	Fire Alter: World
		Sacrifice leads to wisdom
		Satapatha Brahmana
		Identity with Divine Power
		Micocosm -> Macrocosm
		Sacrifice less about limited goals, more about wisdom and transformation

Smrti: Epic Literature(Poems are a central part of the Hindu Historical traditions)
	are considered inspired -to study brings merit unlike Sruti.
	* Ramayana (2500 yrs ago)
		A young prince Rama is raised, and exiled. His wife Sita is stolen. details her rescue and return.
	* Mahabharata (The Great Epic of India)
		A struggle between two sets of brother over rulership
		Battle in which the god Krishna takes a side. Devotion, work, life

Ayurvedic Medicine(Dosha)
	Dosha imbalance produces disease
	Treatment aims to restore underlying balance through exercise, herbs and other plants
	Doshas
		Vata(air/space)
		Pitta(agni, fire)
		Kapha (earth/water)

Yoga
	Many concepts are referred to as Yoga
	To Yoke, control or harness
	Emerges from Patanjali sutras in 2nd C.E
	Yama (Restraints)
		Avoiding stealing, lying, sex and aggression
	Niyama (practices)
		cleanliness, diet, and calm peacefulness

First Bhakti Movement
	6th C.E in South
	Holy men went temple to temple in praise for deity (Vishnu and Shiva)
	In everyday language.
	Vernacular praises -> Elite Literature
	Devotional love poems, rather than war
Second Bhakti Movement
	11th C.E in North
	religious fervor in Vernacular languages
	Calmed muslim-hindu relation
	mirabas mystical marriage to krishana
	God is understood as both formed and formless
Hinduvta Movements
	V.D. Savarkar
	Common sacred history, land, culture, allegiance
	Challenged British colonialism, secularism
	Dharmic unity agianst foreign religions
	Vedas and Epics are historical and authoritative	
	
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Theoretical


Time
	Cosmos 'days' 'nights' lasting billions of years
	Repeating cycles of Creation, Evolution, and Destruction 
	Individual cosmic days are Kalpas, it composed of smaller cycles

Karma
	- A system of cause and effect throughout the cosmos
	Encompasses all actions into a physico-moral framework.
	Cause and consequence manifest over both short and long spans of time

Samsara
	Birth and rebirth. All entities within it are subject to pain and suffering
Moksha
	Liberation from Samsara. Bhakti, study sacred texts and yoga among others

Atman
	An individual indestructible core
Brahman
	The root source of all possible existence.
	Characterized as personal deity, absolute energy or Cosmic principle
	Power source for individual God/desses

Purusha
	Creation of universe
	Origin of the Gods

Henotheism

Vishnu 
	- Enters human world to save from danger. Grants merit and salvation to followers
	Followers(Vaishnavas) Vishnu Puranas
	Has female consorts or shaktis - Lakshmi

Mahadevi (Great Goddess)
	Has her own puranas
	Shakti of Vishnu, Shiva, Rama
	Biths all gods
	Varied appearance

Shiva
	expresses simultaneous complementary powers in tension
	Originator of Yoga
	superior God - born Vishnu and Brahma
	Golden Sperm and Golden Womb

Reciprocity - Cycle of powers
	Human and Divine:
		Distinctions and Connections exist
		Both are temporal and not absolute
	Model for hindu ritual

Puja
	Reverence to the God and spirits. 
		Draws Deity and Devotee towards each other
	Prasad Food offerings to deity reciprocally charged with the Deity's power and grace. 
		Consumed afterwards by devotee to take in there qualities
	Aarti - incensed fire between Deity and devotee; mediates transfer of power and grace


Mandir: Hindu Temples
	Raja(Gopura)
		Gateway tower on the side of temple
	Shikara Tower 
		Mountain Peak over the shrine of presiding Deity

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Sikhism


	23-24 million Sikhs worldwide (9th in size)
	80% live in Punjab (close to Pakistan/ Kashmir)
	Sizable communities in major cities worldwide'
	
Origins
	Second Indian Bhakti Movement
	-> The Sant Movement
	Sant may comes from sadhu or sat 
	Loosely comparable to saint
	
	Iconic Vaisnava Bhakti(Vishnu)
	Aniconic Shavite Bhakti(Yoga)
	
	From Islam
		Mystical Closeness to God
		Hierogamical Themes
	
	God is formless, eternal, the true teacher (Sat Guru)
		Castes, Priests, Temple Puja are rejected
	
Guru Nanak
	15th to 16th century CE
	A local teacher and practitioner in the Sant Mat
	Little known for sure about his life.
	Nanak is a local bureaucrat官僚, but preoccupied with devotion

	Associates with a Muslim companion(Mardana)
		Devotional hymn practice
		Singing and dancing for hours
		Culminates in a mystical experience/vison of drinking holy nectar
			Amrit(holy nectar) given from God ("Waheguru" or "Akal Purakh")
	Existence consists of Samsara, and Liberation
	("Deliverance" or "Mukti") is the goal of religare
	All devotees perform regular work
	All devotees live family lives

Janam-Sakhis Mul Mantra
	Miraculous Life/Death
	Hagiographic Treatment
	Transcendental Universalism
	
	Notice similarity to Hindu murtis
	Hand position = Removal of Fear
	Ek Onkar on the palm

Japji Prayer of Guru Nanak(includes Mul Mantra)

Ek Onkar
	First letters of Mul Mantra
	One God
	Found in Sikh temples everywhere

Guru Amar Das 3- Creation of Sangat system
Guru Arjan Dev 5 
	- Golden Temple
	- Creation of Adi Granth
Guru Hargobind 6
	Beginning of politico-military communal tradition

Transformation of Guru
	Guru Gobind Singh dies
	He declares the line of personal Gurus at an end
	Declared the Adi Granth as the living embodiment of the Gurus
	Declared the corporate body of the Panth as living Guru
		- Ceremonies of the Panth would occur in presence of the Scriptures
	
Guru Gobind Singh
	Provides a martial, battle-ready image alongside Nanak
	Completed two holy texts
		Adi Granth and Dasam Granth
	Accelerated the development of martial skills among the Panth
		Formed an inner core of the Panth - The Khalsa (Pure)
		Intended as the Guru's elite guard
	Also intended to centralize control of the panth

Tat Khalsa movement (Late 19th C)
	Argued that Sikhs are not Hindus
		All Sikhs should or are striving for Khalsa
		Khalsa should strictly observe moral codes of conduct
	No toleration of Hindu practices(puja, etc...)
	Creation of overarching body in charge of temples (gurdwaras) and congregations(sangats)
	
Early Sikhs were former British military
From medium-sized socioeconomic families
Most worked in logging, railroads in OR, WA
1907 race riot in Bellingham, WA
Concentrated in CA valleys - farming climate similar to Punjab
Establish first gurdwara in 1912, Stockton, CA.

Adi Granth
	Collected hymns/poems mostly from the first 5 Gurus
	Also includes material from Sant predecessors:
		Hindus and Muslims
	Finalized in the 17th C.E. (1430 pages)

	Origin
		Manifest body of the Guru
		Compiled to guard against false teachings and hymns circulation.
		Displayed and homaged in public Gurdwaras, processed at festivals.
		
		Shabads
			varying length, usually 4 verses and a refrain
		Shaloks
			Normally couplets, but sometimes longer
		
Hukam vs Haumai
	
Good     Bad


Four Notions of Guruship
	God as Guru
	Scripture as Guru
	Teacher as Guru
	Community as Guru
	
God as Guru

	Experiencing God = experiencing God's gudance
	"Guru" is that divine voice of God from within consciousness

	* Meditate (nam simaran) on the divine Name and sing hymns
	* Divine name is inscribed in Nature and the hkam of Samsara
	The name links otherworldly essence and Guru voice
		* Joins presence of God in Samsara to the "Formless One"
	Joined presence is the Unity(Ek Onkar) of God
	-------
	Waheguru is without qualities (Nirguna)
		* Not subject to Samsara
		* Also called Akal Purakh: "Eternal Person or Formless one"

Teacher as Guru
	From Spiritual Guidance (Worldly Voice in Samsara) to Guru Nanak
	Embodiment and Authority of Sabad ( divine word)

	Transmitted Personally to nice subsequent individuals
	Hymns in the adi Granth all attributed to Nanak(His sabad)
		Only the placement distinguishes the 'thenNanaks'
	
	As manifestations of Sabad, Gurus could change guidance quickly 
	Guruship was passed to the Scripture and Community
	

Scripture as Guru
	Adi Granth became "Guru Granth Sahib"
	-- one way of manifesting Sabad
	
	Akal Purakh reaches enlightened people through Sabad.
	Guru Granth Sbib is inspired - divinely guided human autiship
	
	Each Guru's portion of Sabad is called bani
	Bani and Guru join in the Guru Granth Sahib's verses.
	
	Bani also refers to the primordial liberation wisdom of Akal Purakh Gurus received Bani from Akal Purakh and translated over the time for masses

Community as Guru
	Sikh community is called the Guru Panth
	Simultaneous with the Guru Granth
	Khalsa often interpret themselves as the Guru Panth
	Non-Khalsa members often interpret the wider community as the Guru Panth



Nam Simaran and Kirtan
	Nam Simaran
		Meditative chanting of God's name (Waheguru, Satnam)
	Sowing the body with the seed of divine name, in order to reap hukam and mukti
	Usually solitary but can be public
	
	Kirtan
		Collective Hymn Singing
		Usually Shabads from Granth
		Sometimes imporvisational

Guru Granth Veneration

Akhand Path
	public reading of the Guru Granth Sahib in relay format
	Takes about two days
	Timed to end at daybreak
	Kirtan perform afterwards

one way to manifesting sabad in the world
	Considered to be a manifestation of divine authority
Treated similaryly to a Hindu Murti
	Special room, bed, fans, canopy, food
	Paraded at festivals, Guru birthdays
	Offerings can be made to the scripture
	
Principle congregational activity is Kirtan.
	Any adult Male or Female can conduct ceremonies
	Ritual readers of texts are Granthis
		special college training, mostly men
	Must bow before Guru Granth Sahib, touch forehead to ground. Floor seating.
	Communal eating (langar)
	Any may attend Gurdwara, provided rules are followed

Ragis (Chang ge de di fang)
Granthi Kirtan (Ji mao dan zi)


Marriage: Anand Karaj
	involve procession around Guru Granth Sahib
	Granth: Marriage Hymn Sung

Guidelines for a Happy Marriage
	Guru Gobind Singh
	Mutual Surrender
		From two to one
		From self-will to Beloved
		Haumai to Hukam
Death
	Ceremonial washing and Khalsa dress
	Ceremonial of body after a funeral pyre
	Ceremonial reading of Granth
	
Birth
	Mul Mantra is whispered in the baby's ear. 
	Name taken from a page of the Adi Granth at Gurdwara

Not all sikhs are Khalsa
	Sikhism Saint-Soldiers
	
	uncut hair and beard
	a special comb
	a steel dagger or sword
	a stell wrist-ring
	shorts