Nez Perce National Historic Trail Newletter
March 1996

Progress Report, USDA Forest Service

March 1996

1st Nez Perce National Historic Trail Symposium

Years of hard work and dedication by many Nez Perce National Historic Trail (NPNHT) supporters culminated in the official trail dedication in July 1991. Today, the entire trail is the scene of rapid actions as numerous projects turn dreams into reality. Among the accomplishments in 1995 are:

NPNHT Core Team. A three-person team was created and jointly funded by the USFS and NPS to address projects of common concern for both the NPNHT and Nez Perce National Historical Park. The team's primary tasks include designation and signing of an auto route on existing roads paralleling the trail; organization of the first NPNHT Symposium (held October 16-18 in Lewiston, Idaho; and the creation of an annotated bibliography listing key resources associated with the Nez Perce Indians and the conflict of 1877. The core team consists of Mary Horstman (historian, Lolo National Forest), NPNHT Field Representative; Sandi McFarland (archaeologist, Clearwater National Forest), NPNHT Symposium coordinator; and Dan Gard (University of Montana graduate student, historical archaeology), NPNHT Project Assistant based in the Regional Office. The team works under the direction of NPNHT Trail Coordinator Mike Beckes ( Regional Archeologist, Region One) and Keith Thurlkill (Regional Interpretive Specialist, Region One).

Interpretive Efforts. On the Lolo National Forest, interpretive exhibits have been installed at Fort Fizzle and Howard Creek sites (west of Lolo on Montana Hwy 12). At Fort Fizzle, three panels describe various aspects of the 1877 conflict between the U. S. Government and non-treaty Nez Perce Indians. The panels discuss the bloodless confrontation in July 1877 between Captain Rawn's 7th Infantry and the Nez Perce Indians; the uneasy alliance developed between federal troops and citizen volunteers involved in the standoff; and a brief description of the flight of the non-treaty Nez Perce from their homeland. In addition, a replica of Rawn's breastwork has been built adjacent to the interpretive signs.

Signs now in place at Howard Creek interpret the Lolo Trail and its use by Native Americans, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the non-treaty Nez Perce during their flight in 1877. Access is provided to one of the most interesting segments of the trail adjacent to the Howard Creek Display.

The Bitterroot National Forest produced an auto tour brochure that describes the route and actions of the Nez Perce and their military pursuers as they moved through the Bitterroot valley in July and August 1877. Included in the brochure is a map showing modern highways that approximate the 1877 route.

Deb Gale, Beaverhead National Forest recreation forester, is also preparing an auto tour brochure describing the 1877 Nez Perce campaign through present-day Beaverhead National Forest and Salmon-Challis National Forests. The brochure, which will incorporate recent historical and archaeological research, will be available by the summer of 1996.

An interpretive sign pertaining to the NPNHT was recently installed at the Big Hole National Battlefield. Cooperatively produced by the Beaverhead National Forest and the NPS, this sign describes the route of the Nez Perce from Gibbons Pass to the battlefield and south to Skinner Meadows. In addition, an interpretive sign installed on the Trail Creek Road west of the Big Hole Battlefield describes a camp used by Colonel Gibbon and his men just prior to their attack on the Nez Perce on August 9, 1977.

Another interpretive sign is planned for a site along Montana Highway 43. This one will describe the story of Billy Edwards, the Bitterroot volunteer who left the Big Hole battlefield and walked over 40 miles to Deer Lodge seeking help and reinforcements for Colonel Gibbon and his men.

A free-standing exhibit consisting of colorful maps, graphics and historic information on the NPNHT is available for meetings, fairs, visitor centers and schools. To obtain more information or reserve this display, contact the Forest Service Region One office at (406)329-3226.

A video titled "Landscape of History" will be available soon. This 20-minute program retraces the entire route of the NPNHT describing events and actions that occurred along the way. It is currently undergoing revision and should be completed soon.

Highway signing. All five states involved in the NPNHT auto route have committed to the installation of NPNHT route markers at key points along state and federal highways. The markers, provided by Forest Service Region One, are 32" x 24" with brown backgrounds displaying the NPNHT logo and the words "NEZ PERCE TRAIL." They conform to the National Historic Trail sign standards, as well as to all state and federal highway sign regulations. The first NPNHT auto route sign will be erected in October near Bears Paw Battlefield in conjunction with the Battlefield's annual commemorative ceremonies.

NPNHT Symposium. The First Nez Perce National Historic Trail Symposium was held October 16-18, 1995 in Lewiston, Idaho. This gathering brought together a diverse and knowledgeable group of scholars, researchers, agency professionals and tribal members who presented papers and participated in panel discussions focused on research, management and interpretation of the 1,170 mile Nez Perce Trail. Sponsors included the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation, USFS, NPS and the Nez Perce Tribe.

All who registered for the symposium will receive a one-year membership to the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation. Anyone interested in joining the foundation should write to: the NPNHT Foundation, P.O. Box 20197, Missoula, MT 59801.

The list of projects and accomplishments presented here represent a conscious attempt by the USFS to "jump start" the NPNHT and generate interest and enthusiasm for this newly designated national historic trail. The success of this trail depends upon everyone - Nez Perce Tribe, federal and state agencies, scholars, private landowners and individuals - becoming involved and working together.


Each year the Chief Joseph Trail Ride, an event of the National Appaloosa Horse Club, traverses a 100 mile section of the 1300 mile Nez Perce National Historic Trail. The club is recognized as having one of the oldest organized rides on this trail with at least 26 years involvement. It takes 13 years to complete the route, and the group is presently on the sixth circuit. In 1995, they rode the section across Lolo Hot Springs Resort in Montana to the vicinity of Darby, Montana.

Some 400 people participated either riding or working in camp bringing some 200 horses to complete the trip. Plans for 1996 are underway for the group to start at Darby, Montana and travel to Wisdom, Montana. The last day of the ride will go into the Big Hole National Battlefield camping a few miles away from the site.

The ride is scheduled for July 28 through August 3rd. The cost is $325.00 per rider and $275.00 for a non-rider. Children 12-18 can ride for $250.00. Riders must be a member of the Appaloosa Horse Club and ride registered appaloosa's. Applications are due July 1, 1996. For more information contact Jan Ahles at the Appaloosa Horse Club in Moscow, Idaho at (208) 882-5578.

Historic Traveler Magazine

The May 1996 issue of Historic Traveler Magazine will carry an article on the Nez Perce National Historic Trail. The article is titled, "Trail of Battles, " Traveling the Nez Perce National Historic Trail by George Everett. George is from Butte, Montana and has written more than 50 articles for regional and national magazines which include Wild West, British Heritage and Montana Magazine.

The cover of the article features a picture of Albert Moore, a Nez Perce involved in the 1877 War.

Be sure to pick up a copy of Historic Traveler which will hit the newsstands March 19th. The magazine is $3.95.

NPNHT Foundation Elections

The NPNHT Foundation held its annual meeting on October 18, 1995, in Lewiston, Idaho. New officers elected include President: Dr. Steve Russel, Vice-President: Charlie Moses, Jr, Secretary: Sandi McFarland and Treasurer: Dan Gard.

Lewis and Clark Trail Interpretive Center

The new interpretive center in Great Falls will include exhibits on their encounter with the expedition and on Nez Perce history and culture. Plans should be complete by summer 1996.

The National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Planning Workshop

The workshop will begin April 3 with registration and end with the closing banquet Friday evening April 5th. It will be held at the Skamania Lodge in the Columbia River Gorge in Stevenson, Washington. All persons with a deep interest in the historical significance of the Lewis & Clark saga should attend. Although the meeting is not specific to NPNHT, the upcoming events are certainly related to and will affect the trail from Lewiston to Lost Trail Pass. Registration fees are $295.00. For information on registration contact Harry Hubbard at (206)286-2003.

Upcoming Pow Wows

The Chief Joseph and Warriors Memorial Pow Wow is scheduled for June 14-16, 1996, in Lapwai, Idaho. The pow wow started about 1977 to commemorate the beginning of the Nez Perce War at Whitebird. It is an annual event. Contact Chloe Halfmoon at (208)843-5901 for more information.

The 20th Annual Chief Lookingglass Pow Wow is scheduled for August 17-19, 1996. The Lookingglass Pow Wow is a yearly celebration of Nez Perce culture and traditions. This year's Pow Wow features a parade, dance competitions, friendship dinner and queen competition. The celebration will take place at the Wa-a'yas Community Building in Kamiah, Idaho. For more information, contact Angela Broncheau at (208)935-0716 .

1996 Dates To Remember

March 14-16 - 49th Annual Northwest Anthropological Conference, Moscow, Idaho. Papers will be presented on the Nez Perce Trail. Coordinator: Laura Putsche, University of Idaho, (208)885-6111.

March 1996 - National Trails Symposium, Washington, D.C.

April 18-20 - Pacific Northwest History Conference. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Coordinator: Gary Schalliol, Washington State Historical Society, (206)597-4226.

June 1 - National Trails Day.

July 28 - August 3 - Chief Joseph Trail Ride.

Nez Perce Tribe, Young Horseman's Program

Last June and July the Young Horseman's Program along with volunteers worked to clear blowdown and dig water bars and ditches to maintain a section of the Nez Perce Trail near Musselshell Meadows. The Staff along with 14 students, 30 University of Idaho Upward Bound Students, and volunteers including: Allen and Lucinda Pinkham, Susie Weaskus, Rosa Yearout, Horace & Andrea Axtell, Kay Kidder and Mike and Sandi McFarland and family either donated horses and/or helped the students with a horse safety program and riding skills over the recently cleared trail. This event will be scheduled again this summer as a means to teach horse safety and riding skills to both the Young Horseman's Program and the Upward Bound Program. Dates will be announced later. Contact person is Rudy Shebala at (208)843-7333.

Commemorative Events in 1996

Each year the Nez Perce communities, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducts commemorations at park sites associated with the 1877 Conflict. These remembrances are held on or near the date of the battle at White Bird Battlefield, Clearwater Battlefield, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the Bear Paw Battlefield. Contact the park, at (208)843-2261, closer to the anniversary dates in 1996 to obtain specific information.

More than Expected at Tolo Lake

The Tolo Lake site, near Grangeville, Idaho, was one of fourteen sites added to Nez Perce National Historical Park by Congress in 1992 due to its association with the Nez Perce Conflict of 1877, and its traditional use by the Nez Perce as a camping and meeting place on the Camas Prairie. The site lies along the Nez Perce Trail.

For the past two seasons, archaeologists and paleontologists from Idaho State University, University of Idaho and the Idaho State Historical Society have discovered that the site also holds important remains of prehistoric animals, most notably Mammoths! Up to ten individuals have been found, including one juvenile. While most are Columbian Mammoths, at least one appears to be the smaller Woolly Mammoth. Should analysis prove this true, it would the southern most find of a "Woolly" in North America.

Due to funding constraints, there will be no fieldwork performed this summer and the lake will be refilled.

Personnel Changes at Nez Perce National Historical Park

Two of the park's Unit Managers have moved recently. Art Hathaway, the Spalding (Idaho) Unit Manager retired September 30th after having assisted the park as a retired annuitant for the past three years. His long-time experience at Nez Perce and with the National Park Service greatly assisted the staff as the park experienced its recent expansion into four States. Marie Marek, whose former experience includes serving as a Nez Perce National Historical Park Chief of Interpretation, has recently been hired as the new Spalding Unit Manager. Marie will begin her position at the end of February. Her experience will be a valuable addition to the park and community.

Sue Buchel, the Montana Unit Manager stationed at Big Hole Battlefield, left Nez Perce National Historical Park in January, 1996, and accepted a position at Glacier National Park. Sue served at Nez Perce National Historical Park as the Museum Curator/Cultural Resource Specialist for six years before being reassigned to Big Hole for the past year and a half. Sue's position at Big Hole National Battlefield is currently vacant with Lonnie Hergenrider serving as Acting Big Hole Superintendent/Unit Manager.

The Nez Perce Trail - Lewis and Clark Trail Connection

Some concern was expressed at the Nez Perce Trail Symposium in October that the up-coming Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Commemoration may have an impact on those portions of the Nez Perce trail that intersect with its sister trail. Those land managers and interested parties should be aware that a National Bicentennial Planning Workshop is being developed by the National Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Council, and is tentatively scheduled for April 3-5, 1996, in Stevenson, Washington (in the lovely Columbia Gorge). It is important that as they do their planning, they understand the implications for sensitive parts of the Nez Perce Trail. If interested, contact the National Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Council, P.O. Box 9550, Seattle, WA 98109-0550.

Nez Perce Artifact Collection Update

The Spalding-Allen Collection of Nez Perce artifacts was on exhibit at Nez Perce National Historical Park from 1983 until mid-December 1995. It was removed from exhibit following the Ohio Historical Society's request that the collection be returned by the end of the year. December 12, 1995, the Society and the Nez Perce Tribe reached an agreement whereby the Tribe would purchase the collection by June 1, 1996. In the meantime, Ohio has extended the loan to the National Park Service, allowing the collection to remain at the Spalding Visitor Center of the Nez Perce National Historical Park.

Currently the artifacts are being examined and documented by park staff and interested tribal members and researchers. The tribe has hired a professional fund raiser to lead the effort to raise the $608,000 needed to purchase the artifacts. A special account has been set up to accept donations at:

Spalding-Allen Collection Fund

Key Bank

2250 Thain Road

P.O. Box 1208

Lewiston, ID 83501

Various fund-raising activities are being planned as part of a national effort to raise the needed money.

Information from Nez Perce National Historical Park

for Idaho Archeology Week 1996

Event: Two Day Field Seminar using

lecture, discussion, activities and

field trips to explore the complexity

of the natural world and the human

use of and "connections" to this area.

Date: April 27 10 am-8pm & April 28

10 am-3pm

Location: Nez Perce National Historical Park

White Bird Battlefield & Village Site

Sponsor: National Park Service

Contact: Mark O'Neill, White Bird Unit

983-4096 or Alyse Cadez 843-2261

ext. 138 to receive registration


Event: Video Presentations & Loans:

"Assault On Time", Mystery of the

Cliffs & Solving The Mystery", &

"Silent Witness"

Date: April 21-28, 1996, throughout the


Location Nez Perce National Historical Park,

Spalding Visitor Center, also

available for loan to schools

Contact Alyse Cadez 843-2261 ext. 138

Nez Perce National Historical Park, General Management Plan Update:

The full GMP team, which includes representatives from the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation; the Joseph Band, Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; and the Nez Perce Tribe, met January 29-February 1, 1996 in Lewiston, ID for a workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to develop alternative actions and management strategies for the park based on options developed by the production team.

The results of this alternatives workshop will be summarized in a newsletter and sent to all those persons on the GMP mailing list by the end of February. The production team will also begin fleshing out the information developed during the workshop for a public review draft general management plan/environmental impact statement (GMP/EIS).

Anyone wishing to participate in the GMP planning process and/or be placed on the GMP mailing list can contact Superintendent Frank Walker at (208)843-2261 or address requests to the park at P.O. Box 93, Spalding, ID 83551.

Book Features

Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces. Bill and Jan Moeller. Through full-color photographs and engaging text, Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces traces the actual route the Indians followed on their 1,500-mile epic flight from the U.S. Cavalry in 1877. Each event in the journey is chronicled in the text and brought into view by color photographs of the locations where it all took place. A beautiful and fascinating book to keep on your coffee table or on your car's dash. 96 p., 8 3/8x9, 1995, paper $15.00.

That All People May Be One People, Send Rain To Wash the Face of the Earth Chief Joseph, 1879. With great dignity, clarity and eloquence, Chief Joseph speaks of his life, of the 1877 Nez Perce War, of promises made and broken, of humankind's relationship to the earth, and of the oneness of all peoples. 60p., 1995, Paper, $12.95.

"The words of Chief Joseph...come alive...This is an important contribution to Native American Literature..."-Reviewer's Bookwatch.

"...much of what ...[Chief Joseph] said about political conflicts, the environment, and injustice applies to today's situations." - The Book Report.

Children of Grace. The Nez Perce War of 1877. Bruce Hampton. Drawing upon original documents, letters, diaries, manuscripts, and previously overlooked oral histories-author Bruce Hampton has created a richly detailed narrative history in this enthralling account, a triumph of research, passion, and fine writing.

Children of Grace is a harrowing picture of bravery and horror, perfidy and pathos-a dramatic page of American History no reader will soon forget. 337 p., $27.50 Hardcover.

"A compelling narrative that skillfully re-creates one of the most dramatic and tragic episodes in the history of Indian-white relations." Robert M. Utley, Historian and Author.

"Children of Grace tells an enormous story with vivid intimacy." William Kittredge, author of Hole in the Sky.

In Pursuit of the Nez Perces. First you'll observe the 1300-mile panorama of the war from the viewpoint of the commander of the pursuing U.S. troops, Gen. O.O. Howard, who published his account in 1881 in an attempt to justify what many at that time and since have called an indefensible lack of military vigor.

Then, through the 1878 news articles of Montana reporter Duncan McDonald, you'll hear the voices of those Nez Perces who fled during the last hours of the war to the safety of Canada and who for years afterwards bitterly, sadly, defined the war as a friendship forgotten, a trust betrayed.

Finally, through the voice of the famed Chief Joseph, whose surrender at the Bear Paws drew a conclusion to the four-month long saga, you'll witness the personal and cultural pride, struggles, and sufferings of the pursued. 320p., 1993, $12.95.

From The Pages Of History

Orofino Tribune

Feb. 4, 1921

Grangeville-Mrs. Mary Easton, aged pioneer has been granted a pension of $12 a month and a $600 back pay due her late husband for services in the Nez Perce War of 1877.

Orofino Tribune

March 18, 1921

The captives (from the Nez Perce War) were taken to Indian Territory. Archie Lawyer, James Reuben and Mark Williams went to them to preach and teach. They started a church and school there. Mark Williams and Archie Lawyer did not stay there long. It was unhealthy for the Indians. All the children born there died, and after eight years of captivity they were allowed to return.

Lewiston Morning Tribune


Samuel Tilden, a nephew of the famous young Joseph and one of the last survivors of the Nez Perce Indian War, died at the orchards Nursing Home of infirmities of age. He was either 97 or 98.

Tilden whose Nez Perce name was Sham-Keen (Shirt On), was about 10 when he accompanied the tribe on its 1,800 mile running battle with the U.S. Cavalry in Montana which ended with Joseph's famous surrender speech at Col. Nelson A. Miles in 1877.

He and his parents escaped from the battlefield near the Bear Paw Mountains in northcentral Montana, thus avoiding banishment to Oklahoma which Joseph and the rest of his band suffered following the surrender. They lived with the Sioux Indians in Canada until the following year. One of Tilden's proudest memories was of a trip to Washington D.C., with Chief Joseph in 1903. He went there as a check on an interpreter.

Lewiston Morning Tribune


Record snow packs have delayed the opening of the many higher areas of the Lochsa River. The Lolo Motorway in particular is still packed with drifts up to 100 feet, and probably will not be open to vehicle traffic until the first part of August.





March 8-10 E-PHE-TES POW WOW

Memorials, name giving, traditional dancing, food

Lapwai Community Building, Lapwai, Idaho



LCSC Campus, Lewiston, Idaho, 208-799-2812


Two day field seminar April 27 & 28

at White Bird Battlefield

White Bird, Idaho


Mark O'Neill (208)983-4096

Alyse Cadez (208)843-2261 ext. 138

(further info attached)

April 21-28 EARTH DAY - WEEK

Multiagency school programs celebrating EARTH DAY


(middle weekend) Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, & food

Kamiah Community Building, Kamiah, Idaho


Demonstrations & presentations of activities in the

Big Hole Valley, Montana in 1910, for more

information call Big Hole National Battlefield



Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, food

Lapwai, Idaho Community Center


June 17 Commemorates the first battle of the War of 1877

Speakers and VFW ceremonies

White Bird Battlefield Site, White Bird, Idaho

June 19-July 5 TALMAKS CAMP

Century-old encampment of six Nez Perce Presbyterian

churches with worship services and social activities

Mason Butte near Craigmont, Idaho


Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, parade

Nespelem, Washington

July 12-14 Nespelem Pow Wow, Nespelem, Washington


Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, food

Wallowa, Oregon 503/886-2422


Parades, rodeo, Nez Perce encampment, food

Joseph, Oregon


Commemorates the fallen Nez Perce warriors and U.S.

Cavalry & Infantry of the War of 1877

Big Hole National Battlefield, near Wisdom, Montana


Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, food

Kamiah Community Building, Kamiah, Idaho


Horse Parade, cultural demonstrations & collections,

speakers, drumming/dancing, & food

Nez Perce NHP Spalding, Idaho


BATTLEFIELD held on Sunday

Chief Joseph Memorial Pow Wow at Ft. Belknap

Chinook, Montana 406/357-3130


Memorials, name giving, drumming/dancing, food




April 22 Clearwater National Forest, Supervisor's Office, 12730 Hwy. 12, Orofino, Idaho

83544 (208)476-4541.

*"Big George and the Allotment Era Connection." Slide Presentation by Sandi

McFarland. Shown in the Supervisor's Office at 12:00 Noon.

April 23 Clearwater National Forest, Supervisor's Office.

*Video - "Silent Witness, Protecting American Indian Archaeological Sites."

Narrated by Robert Redford. Shown in the Supervisor's Office at 12:00 Noon by

Linnea Keating.

April 24 Clearwater National Forest Supervisor's Office.

*"The Lolo Trail - Values in Harmony and in Conflict." Slide presentation by Jeff

Fee. Shown in the Supervisor's Office at 12:00 Noon.

April 25 Clearwater National Forest Supervisor's Office.

*"Tsoop-Nit-Pa-Lu and a Corridor of Change. Evolution of an Ancient Travel Route.

Nee-Me-Poo Trail" Slide presentation by Sandi McFarland. Shown in the

Supervisor's Office at 12:00 Noon.

April 26 Clearwater National Forest Supervisor's Office.

*Video - "Silent Witness..." Shown in the Supervisor's Office at 12:00 Noon.

*Display by Sandi McFarland, "A Future In Need of a Past. Why is The Past Important?" Located in the lobby of the Supervisor's Office, Clearwater National Forest. Available through April during business hours.

*"Interpreting Changing Historic Landscapes." Slide presentation by Robbin Johnston. Shown in the Supervisor's Office of the Nez Perce National Forest. Grangeville, Idaho TBA.

Contact Person: Sandi McFarland (208)476-4541.

Report from the NPNHT Foundation

Letter from the President

Symposium News

Election News


foundation history

yearly schedule

dues included in symposium fee

cooperation with lewis and clark

include membership formsDear Members and Friends,

As the Foundations embarks on its fifth year of existence, we are looking forward to many rewarding activities and experiences. Our first Symposium, held in Lewiston, Idaho on October 16-18, was a great success. We wish to thank the many people and organizations who attended and the people who organized it. We are especially grateful for partnership support from the Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Nez Perce Tribe. A special thanks goes to Sandi McFarland (Symposium coordinator), Dan Gard (Project Assistant), Mary Horstman (Field Representative), Mike Beckes (USFS Region One Archaeologist, Nez Perce Historic Trail), Keith Thurlkill (USFS Region One, Interpretive Services). Thanks also to the many people who donated prizes for our auction and provided entertainment and enjoyment for the banquet attendees. Our banquet speaker was Steve Elkinton from the National Park Service in Washington, D.C. Steve is the Program Leader for the National Trails System Programs.

At the Symposium, we also held the annual meeting of the Foundation and elected new officers. They are; Dan Gard (Treasurer), Sandi McFarland (Secretary), Charlie Moses Jr. (Vice President) and Steve Russell (President). Your officers are in the process of working to increase your benefits of Foundation membership. We are now planning a foundation calendar. We will be proposing that the Symposium be held every other year and alternated with a "trail" meeting that is held at a different location along the trail each year. The Symposiums are proposed to be in late spring and the "trail" meetings will be held in the summer when we will have a two-day camp out, at some point along the trail, and do hiking and have informal talks. Twice a year, in May and November, we propose publishing a combined newsletter and journal for members and scholars to present their interests.

We are implementing a new membership policy. The membership year will be the calendar year. The Symposium registration will also include a complementary membership. A new dues structure has been prepared. Individual memberships are proposed at $23 per year.

The Lewis and Clark Bicentennial will be held in the years 2003-2006 and the travel route of the Corps of Discovery from Horse Prairie, Montana to Weippe Prairie, Idaho coincides closely with the NPNHT. Our Foundation will be cooperating in this celebration and participating, where appropriate. We have concerns about the impact of large numbers of people at the various sites and will be cooperating with the management agencies (NPS, USFS, BLM) in this regard.

Steve F. Russell, President

Partnership for the National Trails System

This partnership has been formed to act as one voice for all of the nineteen National Historic and National Scenic Trails specified in the National Trails System Act. Your foundation was represented at a two-day working session held in Washington, D.C. this March. This was a great opportunity to learn about all the trails and how their supporting organizations conduct business. We learned the elements of fund raising, volunteer leadership, and the importance of joining in a partnership. We also explored the many characteristics of the national trails system. The lessons learned at this meeting will be implemented in the coming months.

NPNHT Foundation on the World Wide Web

The NPNHT Foundation has taken the leadership roll in putting the National Historic and National Scenic Trails on the World Wide Web. The Foundation will be providing web page support for the partnership until each trail system can support their own web pages. Visit us and the other trails at

Ideas Wanted

We are looking for ideas for NPNHT activities in the next few years. We would like to hear from you about what you would like to do and what sites along the trail you would like to visit as a group. Also, let us know about ideas you have for accomplishing our mission. Our address is still the same: Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation, P.O. Box 20197, Missoula, MT 59801

New Foundation Mission Statement (Draft)

The Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation exists to promote public awareness and appreciation of the historic route of 1877 while maintaining respect for, and preserving, its cultural resources and values. Our Foundation does this by working individually or jointly with governmental agencies and others. The Foundation also encourages research, publication, and interpretation of the contributions to American history made by the Nez Perce peoples, especially in association with their 1877 journey, and the events of time and place before, during, and after the military campaign, which are historically important to our nation.

A Look Back at Foundation History

A search through the foundation archives produced the following time-line for our history:

Summer 1877 1877 Nez Perce War

1965 Nez Perce National Historic Park established by Public Law 89-19.

1966 National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, Public Law 89-665.

1968 National Trails System Act. Public Law 90-543, 82 STAT. 919 as amended; 16 U.S.C. 1241 (note), 1241-1249. This law defined the process for planning National Trails.

1976 Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) National Historic Trail Study. Public Law 94-527 authorized joint study by Forest Service and National Park Service to determine if the Nez Perce flight route of 1877 would qualify as a National Historic Trail.

1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act, Public Law 95-341.

1978 Public Workshop information packet on the Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) National Historic Trail, Forest Service and National Park Service.

October 1978 Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail Study, a cooperative study by National Park Service and USDA Forest Service for the purpose of determining if the trail should be added to the National Trails System.

1979 Archaeological Resources Protection Act, Public Law 96-95.

March 1982 Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail: A Study Report is issued by the USDA Forest Service, Region 1, in cooperation with the National Park Service. Recommends that the Nez Perce Trail be designated as a National Historic Trail.

1984 State of Idaho Indian Grave Law, Idaho Code Sec. 18-7027 and Sec. 27-501.

July 1, 1985 Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail: Decision Notice & Environmental Assessment. Peter C. Myers, Asst. Secretary of Agriculture adopts the joint Forest Service/National Park Service Alternative C-1: Designate the entire 1,170-mile route. Mark along highways and other connecting roads. Develop only specific portions of the 306 miles of identified high potential route segments on Federal lands or lands managed by the States.

October 6, 1986 The Nez Perce National Historic Trail Act, 99th Congress, Public Law 99-445, 100 STAT. 1122. This law amended the National Trails System Act to create the NPNHT.

May 1989 Advisory Council was formed, as required by Sec. 5d of the NTS Act, to assist with the preparation of the NPNHT Comprehensive Plan. Regional Forester John Mumma served actively as Advisory Council Chairman. The purpose of the council is to advise the Secretary of Agriculture on the development and management of the NPNHT. Its continuing role is to comment on and make appropriate recommendations about specific trail segments as they are considered for formal additions to the NPNHT system, and to monitor the development and concerns of specific user groups or governmental entities on a state-by-state basis.

August 29, 1989 Advisory Council is renewed by Clayton Yeutter, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

October 5, 1990 Comprehensive Management Plan for the NPNHT was approved by the Forest Service (John W. Mumma, Regional Forester), the National Park Service (Jack Neckels, Acting Regional Director), and the Bureau of Land Management (Marvin LeNoue, State Director of Montana). The purpose of the Comprehensive Plan is to establish and provide guidelines for planning, development, management, and protection of the Nez Perce National Historic Trail with sensitivity to its historic significance.

July 1991 Advisory Council is disbanded to make way for the formation of the Foundation. The Foundation assumes the role of the Advisory Council.

July 19, 1991 Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation is formed.

July 19, 1991 First Meeting of the Board of Directors, Holiday Inn Parkside, Missoula, Montana. Foundation Bylaws drafted by Merle Wells and adopted unanimously.

First officers elected: Harry Fritz, President; Richard L. Adams, Vice President; Sandi McFarland, Secretary; Leroy Anderson, Treasurer; Cheryl Wilfong, Editor.

May 15, 1992 1992 Meeting of the Board of Directors, Kamiah Ranger Station, Kamiah, Idaho.

The following committees were formed: Executive, Finance, Membership, Education. The president was give authority to appoint Ad Hoc committees.

October 1993 First Newsletter, James M. Dolan, Executive Director.

November 20, 1993 1993 Meeting of the Board of Directors, Missoula Public Library, Missoula, Mt.

1994 Meeting of the Board of Directors,

March 1995 Progress Report, Michael R. Beckes, NPNHT Coordinator, USDA Forest Service.

October 16-19, 1995 First Annual Symposium, Sandi McFarland, General Chair.

October 18, 1995 1995 Annual Meeting of the Board of Directors, Ramada Inn, Lewiston, Idaho.

Officers Elected: Steve Russell, President; Charlie Moses Jr., Vice President; Sandi McFarland, Secretary; Dan Gard, Treasurer.