Susan E. Cross
Department of Psychology
W112 Lagomarcino Hall
(515) 294-6424 (fax)
From the time we are children, we are required to answer the question “Who am I?” How we answer that question influences all domains of our life – our relationships, our careers, our thoughts, our feelings, our choices… the list is endless. My research focuses on how people define themselves, and the consequences of self-definition for thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Currently, much of my research addresses a particular dimension of self-definition, the Relational Self-Construal. Individuals who have constructed a highly relational self-construal will tend to define themselves in terms of their close relationships with others. This form of self-definition contrasts with the independent self-construal, in which the self is viewed as autonomous and separated from others. For many years, social psychologists assumed that everyone constructed a very individualistic, independent self-construal, and many theories in social psychology are based on this assumption. Recent research, however, has revealed that there is substantial variability in the self; many theories based on an assumption that the self is independent and separated from others require revision in light of the relational self-construal. Recent papers have examined the role of the relational self-construal in social cognition, in the development of closeness in relationships, and in well-being. (Click here for titles and abstracts.)
I am also very interested in cross-cultural psychology, and much of my research on the relational self-construal grew out of cross-cultural work (click here for titles). Currently, Jon Gore (a 5th year graduate student) and I are collaborating on research with a Japanese colleague. This study examines cultural differences in the self and their consequences for motivation and achievement. I am also developing a research collaboration with some Turkish social psychologists.
For students investigating graduate schools:
I am very interested in admitting one or two graduate students for the 2004-2005 school year. I enjoy working closely with students, and I’ve had the privilege of working with excellent students through the years. I supervise no more than 3 students at a time, so there are plenty of opportunities to work closely on research. Most students in the social program at ISU desire an academic career, so the program is oriented toward close student-faculty collaboration and interaction. For more information about the graduate program in social psychology at ISU, click here.
Cross, S. E., Gore, J. S., & Morris, M. L. (2003, November). The relational self-construal, self-concept consistency, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
E., & Gore, J. S. (in press).The relational self-construal and the
construction of closeness. In A. Aron & D. Mashek (Eds.), The handbook of closeness and intimacy.
Gore, J. S., & Cross, S. E. (2003) There’s more to me than just me: The relational self-construal and relational motivation. Manuscript under revision.
Gore, J. S., Cross, S. E., & Morris, M. L. (2003). Let’s be friends: The relational self-construal, relationship development and maintenance. Manuscript in preparation.
Cross, S. E. , & Morris, M. L. (2003). Getting to know you: The relational self-construal, relational cognition, and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 512-523.
Cross, S. E., Morris, M.L, & Gore, J. (2002). Thinking about oneself and others: The relational-interdependent self-construal and social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 399-418.
Cross, S. E., & Vick, N. (2001). The interdependent self-construal and social support: The case of persistence in engineering. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 820-832.
Cross, S. E., Bacon, P., & Morris, M. (2000). The relational- interdependent self-construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 791-808.
Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5-37.
Kanagawa, C., Cross, S. E., & Markus, H. R. (2001). "Who am I?": The cultural psychology of the conceptual self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 90-103.
Gore, J. S., Cross, S. E., & Kanagawa, C. Cultural variation in the self: Implications for self-determined motivation. Manuscript in preparation.
Cross, S. E. (1995). Self-construals, coping, and stress in cross-cultural adaptation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 673-697.
E., & Gore, J. (2002). Cultural models of the self. In M. Leary & J.
Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 536-564).
E., & Markus, H. R. (1999). The cultural constitution of personality. In L. Pervin
& O. John (Eds). Handbook
of personality theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 378-396).