Nature of Regional Organizations

 

What Question Should We Ask?

 

-         Why are other regions’ IOs less extensive and institutionalized than European IOs?

-         Why are European IOs broader and deeper than other region’s IOs?

 

 

Breadth and Depth of Regional IOs

 

               Broad

Narrow

Deep

 

EU

 

null

 

Shallow

OAS, AU, APEC

ASEAN, GCC

 

State-Age Hypothesis

 

-         Older regional state-systems are more likely to have stronger IOs

 

-         Measurement problem: STS development v. system membership

 

Avg. Year of State Membership

Region

1873

Europe

1899

Americas

1925

Middle East

1943

Asia

1961

Africa

 

African Exceptionalism or ME/Asian Exceptionalism?

 

-         Is OAU/AU unusually broad or are ME & Asian IOs unusually shallow?

-          

 

Realist-Consistent Hypotheses

-         regional rivalries impede broad & deep regional cooperation

o      China v. Japan rivalry impeded Asian regionalism

o      Iran v. Saudi Arabia, Iraq impeded ME coop.

o      US v. rest of Americas (broad but shallow)

 

-         extra-regional threats increase regional cooperation

o      EU states faced the USSR (EU/NATO overlap)

 

Liberal Hypotheses

-         Functional model: IOs deepen and broaden based on demand for coop. in functional areas

o      ECSC EEC/EURATOM SEA EU → Euro zone

o      FTAs may not achieve this

-         Inter-govermental bargains: common interest in expanding coop. generated at state level

o      Governments see net gain to broadening & deepening

o      SEA; NATO

o      Is Europe anomalous?

-         Transnational model: IOs broaden and deepen based on transnational societal demand

o      SEA generated by European multinational pressure & EC-level “policy entrepreneurs”

o      Similar coalitions absent outside Europe

Constructivist Hypotheses

-         collective identities promote or detract from broad & deep regional coop.

o      pan-Arabism v. Iran, Turkey; insufficient pan-Asian identity

o      European community emerges

o      Does this explain African or American regional IO patterns?

-         Beliefs about collective security or economy affect regional IO patterns