Social and Economic Lobbies

I. State-Society Theory

A. Weak State Theories

  1. Pluralist Model
  2. Bureauratic Politics & "Political Significants"

B. Strong State Theories

  1. executive branch can formulate policy autonomously
  2. more resistant to interest group and public pressure than Congress
  3. greater autonomy in foreign policy than in domestic policy

C. State-Society Interaction

  1. Policy outcomes are the result of bargaining between state and society
  2. State apparatus has diverse interests of its own
  3. Societal actors competing for influence with each other and between states agencies
  4. Policy networks
  5. Strength and direction of policy networks between interests and state agencies determine autonomy and capacity of state
  6. State agencies can draw on societal constituents to lobby for them; in turn, they are lobbied

D. State Depart.

  1. Autonomous but lacks strong policy network
  2. no powerful domestic constituency
  3. Foreign governments as "constituents"

E. Defense Dept.

  1. Strong policy network
  2. Congressional Support
  3. Veterans Groups
  4. Voting Soldiers & Defense Civilians
  5. Military Contractors
  6. States and municipalities with military bases & support industries
  7. Autonomy fissured


II. Collective Action Theory (M. Olson)

A. Costly and difficult to organize collective action

B. Diffuse v. concentrated benefits

C. Free rider problem

D. Privileged groups

III. Typology of Interest Groups

A. Economic Interests (Ideal Rational Actors)

  1. Export Promoting-Import Dependent Coalition (e.g., USA Engage), CITAC
  2. Import Competing Industries
  3. Labor positions varies: e.g., dock workers v. steelworkers
  4. Diffuse consumer interest

B. Principled Interest Groups ("other"-oriented)

  1. Anti-Communism (Committee on the Present Danger)
  2. Arms control (FAS, Peace Action)
  3. Human rights (e.g., Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch)
  4. Environment (e.g., Sierra Club, NRDC)
  5. Ethnic compatriots (e.g., AIPAC, CANF)

C. Foreign Interests

  1. foreign governments, firms, groups & individuals influencing policy
  2. lobby executive and Congress
  3. seek to influence public opinion & media
  4. PR firms, consultancies, professional lobbies represent them
  5. agents of foreign principals must register w/ USG (FARA)