Causes of Contemporary Suicide Terrorism
- no evidence at macro or micro level
- terrorists are usually from middle- or upper- class families
Extremist Islamic Fundamentalist Ideology?
- how to explain non-Islamic terrorism?
National Independence/Anti-Occupation Effort
- seek to overthrow colonial government
- oust foreign occupation forces
- Pape: terrorist goal is “to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from territory that the terrorists consider to be their homeland” (Pape, 38)
Pape’s Pre-conditions of Suicide Terrorism
- Religious Differences Matter
o suicide terrorism occurs when there is confessional nationalism.
- Democratic target
- Perceived foreign occupation
- Nationalist rebellion
- No prior concessions by target democracy
Why is Suicide Terrorism Effective?
- ‘Occupied’ population supports the goals
- Martyrdom reinforces the goal and social support
- Deadlier than alternatives
attacks account for 3% of all terrorist attacks from 1980-2003 but account for
48% of deaths, excluding
o 12 deaths per attack v. <1 death average
- see Pape Appendix I for list through 2005