Genocide, ‘Mass Killing,’ and ‘Murderous Ethnic Cleansing’
-        debate over terms
o     legal definition of genocide v. analytical definitions of mass killing
o     Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
§       signed Dec. 1948; entered into force, Jan. 1951
§       US ratified in 1988

“Article I: The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.” 

“Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” 

-        Mann’s distinctions among “murderous ethnic cleansing” (MEC)
o     Ethnocide: unintended wiping out of a group and its culture
o     Politicide: intended wiping out of group’s leadership and potential leadership (Harff)
o     Classicide: intended mass killing of entire social classes
o     Genocide: intended mass killing of entire group
§       Mann excludes partial killing

-        Modernity and MEC
o     Mann rejects “primitive” and “ancient hatreds” argument
o     MEC as possible only when mass democracy is conceivable as a political project

-        Not entirely elite manipulated