- wars are fought for political purposes
o political aim should direct the military strategy
o war is not an autonomous realm from politics
o ends should direct means
§ “The political object is the goal, war is the means of reaching it, and means can never be considered in isolation from their purpose” (I:, p.87)
- war is unpredictable
o fog, friction
o morale of military & people
o coup d’oeil & determination of commanders
- violence is inherent in war
o bloodshed cannot be minimized
o passionate hatreds
o escalation to extreme use of force a risk
Criticism of Clausewitzean Approach
- Is the theory prescriptive or explanatory?
o is war really the continuation of policy?
o should we think of it that way?
- ‘WWCD?’ is not a helpful guide to strategy
- On War is opaque & contradictory
Strategy, Grand Strategy, &
- strategy as the use of “the engagement” (combat, battle) for the purpose of the war
- grand strategy: a state’s ‘theory’ of how to create security for itself (B. Posen)
o military strategy should be directed by grand strategy