Pre-war European welfare state
From: Alberto Alesina, et al, "Why Doesn't the United States Have a European-Style Welfare State?" Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Vol. 2001, No. 2. (2001), pp. 195.
From: Alexander Hicks, et al, "The Programmatic Emergence of the Social Security State" American Sociological Review, Vol. 60, No. 3. (Jun., 1995), p.337