Language and Nationalism


-         Map of Nigerian Language Groups

-         Map of Indian Language Groups



Nationalism and State-Building in Latin America


-         revolts against Spanish rule 1809-1825

o      map of colonial Latin America

o      map of post-independence Latin America

-         19th Century state-building and nation-building

o      map of 1930s Latin America

o      contemporary Latin America

o      most national identities rooted in civic conception of republican institutions along with ethnic conception of criollo/creole rule

o      Portalian Chile’s “pacification” of Mapuche regions; Argentina’s “Conquest of the Desert” (1878-79)

-         20th century sees greater democratization outside of post-colonial elites to mestizo identity

o      still excludes indigenous ethnicities in their own right

o      privileged criollo  identity

-         resurgence of indigenous American (Indian) identities in 1980s- present

o      indigenous activism: Zapatista (Mayan) uprising in Chiapas, Mexico, 1994; Hugo Chavez elected in Venezuela, 1998; Alejandro Toledo  elected in Peru, 2001; Ollanta Humala gains plurality in 1st round but loses in 2nd round in 2006; Evo Morales (Aymara Indian) elected in Bolivia, 2005; 

o      Decline of established party system in Andean states ( Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru. Venezuela)

§       Electoral volatility since 1978 ranging from 22.1% in Columbia to 51.9% in Peru

§       Rise in electoral participation from less than 15% in Ecuador & Peru during the 1950s to over 40% in 2000s

o      Poor state capacity