Correction/Clarification on Iraqi PR/mmd system


-         275 legislative seats

-         230 allocated by proportion of party vote in the province in which the parties ran

-         45 seats allocated first to parties that achieved more votes than the total number of all votes divided by 275 (the number of seats), then allocated to each party based on their national share of the vote

-         228 parties or groups of parties registered

-         notable division among Sunni groups




Was Civil War in Iraq Over-Determined?


-         oil as a rentable commodity

o       state as a target

-         per capita income low

-         ethnic majority with significant minorities


-         Text Box: Probability of violence 




-         decline of Iraqi state capacity (1988-2003)

o       debt from Iran-Iraq war (1980-88)

o       uprisings after UN-Iraq war (1991)

o       effect of economic sanctions (1991-2003)

-         fear of majoritarian democracy

o       Sunnis & Kurds fear Shi’ite dominance

o       Shi’ite & Kurds fear Sunni dominance

o       Shi’ite & Sunnis fear Kurdish separatism