Ecology, Conservation and Sustainable Development

"Green Accounting"

Environmental Indicators            
  Income Category Country
  High Middle Low US  China Nigeria
Energy use per capita (kg oil equiv) 5395 1388 493 7943 960 718
GDP per energy unit 5.2 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.6 1.3
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons) 12.4 3.2 0.8 19.8 2.2 0.3
Gross National Savings 19.1 27.8 23.1 13.5 47.8 20.3
Green-Adjusted GNS 9.2 10 8.9 4.7 34.4 -31.4
Source: World Bank's Little Green Databook         `  


Barriers to Conservation Efforts



Conservation with or without develompent

'travel in undisturbed, natural areas with the objective of admiring, studying, and enjoying the scenery and its wild animals and plants and culture' (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1991).

“purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment; taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem; producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people” (TES 1991, my emphasis).

How much do local residents benefit from eco-tourism?

Is Ecotourism Economically Sustainable