Ecology, Conservation and Sustainable Development
|Energy use per capita (kg oil equiv)||5395||1388||493||7943||960||718|
|GDP per energy unit||5.2||4.1||4.1||4.4||4.6||1.3|
|CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)||12.4||3.2||0.8||19.8||2.2||0.3|
|Gross National Savings||19.1||27.8||23.1||13.5||47.8||20.3|
|Source: World Bank's Little Green Databook||`|
Barriers to Conservation Efforts
weak state capacity: certification & enforcement
need for international cooperation
e.g., developed states' procurement
will 'green' revenue replace 'brown' revenue?
Conservation with or without develompent
'travel in undisturbed, natural areas with the objective of admiring, studying, and enjoying the scenery and its wild animals and plants and culture' (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1991).
“purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment; taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem; producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people” (TES 1991, my emphasis).
How much do local residents benefit from eco-tourism?
limited large-n quantitative evidence
case-study evidence mixed (Corbett NP & Maasia Mara v. Kanha Tr & Kruger)
most employees do come from local areas (Langholz, 1996)
foreign v. domestic ownership
Is Ecotourism Economically Sustainable
global tourism grows, but patterns shift
1997: international tourism rose 2.4% globally but 1/5th of WTO members saw declines
how much growth in eco-tourism is possible v. regular tourism?