External Challenges to State-Building


-         legacies of colonial political rule

o      extent of state-building

§       direct rule (e.g. Tunisia) v. indirect rule (e.g. Libya)

o      indigenous v. foreign staffing

o      replication of European institutions

§       India v. Congo/Zaire

-         integration into global economy

o      subservience to the metropolitan economy (metropole v. colony)

o      dependence on post-colonial trade and finance

o      timing of industrial development

§       import-substitution v. export-led growth 

-         Why not military threats?

o      War helps build the state

o      Crisis reinforces state authority

o      International alliances



Internal Challenges to State-Building


-         rival authorities: e.g., church/mosque, tribal/clan, patronage networks, political parties 

-         economic structure

o      lack of non-agrarian capital

o      concentration of wealth

§       plantations v. small-plot farming

§       firms v. artisans & craftsmen 

o      insufficient domestic capital

§       state-led development

-         building “capacity” of the state 

o      staffing the bureaucracies

§       education levels of staff

§       loyalties of  staff

§       ethnic/religious composition

o      acquiring ‘statistics’

§       surveillance of society

§       urban v. rural divide

§       re-ordering of society along bureaucratic-rationalist lines

o      resisting or co-opting rival institutions

§       party bureaucracies (e.g., China’s party-state apparatus)

§       tribal or religious courts

o      providing public goods

§       e.g., law enforcement, infrastructure, health & safety regulation

§       disrupts patronage networks

§       requires resources


-         funding the state

o      source of revenue

§       tariffs v. excise taxes v. income taxes

§       royalties on exports

o      political effects of taxation

§       rebellion

§       ‘everyday resistance’ (J. Scott)

§       voice and demands

-         routinization’ v. contestation

o      politics as administrative routine v. public contest