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Answer the question in the space provided (as best you can; use the back page if necessary). Questions 1-4 are worth 10 points each. Questions 5 & 6 are worth 30 points each.
are two conditions, according to Mingst, under which individuals are likely to
affect or impact events?
see p.139-140 of Mingst: 1) political institutions are unstable, young, in crisis or collapsed; 2) institutional constraints are limited; 3) issue or situation is peripheral, unusual, ambiguous [Students may use the sub-elements of #1 as separate conditions; Mingst groups them together but I see them as distinct]
are two ways that Hermann’s independent leaders differ from participatory
See p.141-142, especially the chart on p.142
on Mingst’s discussion, how well do “belief systems” or “operational codes”
explain state’s foreign policy.
See p.143-44: for full credit they should note that the views of Dulles and Kissenger are consistent with the policies the US pursued but that Dulles (and Kissenger) were just one, respectively, of a set of leaders so the role of their beliefs or codes cannot be stated “with certainty”
an example of how “mirror images” and an example of how “groupthink” affect
See the table on p.145
how two of Lauren, George & Craig’s
“lessons of crisis” management were employed or not employed in a crisis.
Discussion of 1878 crisis (Bismark) or the 1914 crisis or the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. The list of ‘lessons’ is here: http://www.public.iastate.edu/%7Epol_s.251/6mar.htm
how the management of the crisis preceding World War I differed from the
management of the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, according to Lauren, George &
Relevant differences include that during WWI statesmen had more time to decide;. In WWI, the tempo of military action was not paused as it was in 1973; in WWI the major powers had more control over their militaries and allies than the US and USSR had over their Middle East clients in 1973; in 1973 political leaders were better able to coordinate military and political action than in 1914; public opinion and lobbying played an even stronger role in the US than p.o. did in Europe in 1914. Basically, they should show the contrast between the poor following of the ‘lessons of crisis management’ in 1914 with the (for the most part) good following of these lessons is 1973.