The first eight questions can be answered with a phrase or a few sentences. You should be able to answer them in the space below each.
1). What makes a “democratic republic” different from a “direct democracy”?
- a republic has representatives who govern with consent of the people; in a direct democracy, the citizens actively make the laws.
2) Explain the difference between two of these theories of American democracy: majoritarianism, elite theory, and pluralism.
- As text outlines
3) What were two key weaknesses of the government under the
Articles of Confederation, according to the American
- Any two: unable to demand revenue from states; 9 states had to consent to any laws; could not maintain milita; could not regulate interstate commerce, etc.
4) Under the Articles of Confederation, were states considered sovereign?
5) How did the Constitutional Convention resolve the northern states’ claim that enslaved people should not be counted as residents for the purposes of Congressional representation and the southern states’ demand that they should count the same as free persons?
- The three-fifths compromise had slaves counted as 3/5 of f ree persons.
6) According to lecture, what are two reasons to believe that the Constitution created a compound republic and not a compact of the existing states?
- Constitution states “We, the People”; no sovereignty for states but Art. VI supremacy clause; no states constituted without Continental Congress permission
7) What is the significance of the elastic clause, or the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution?
- grants Congress authority to pass laws that are not expressed or enumerated but that can be inferred from it powers
8) What were two of the Anti-Federalist’s critiques or objections to the proposed Constitution?
- lacked a bill of rights to prevent Congress from denying civil liberties
- centralized power too far
- written by aristocrats who would establish aristocratic tyranny
- only small republic could preserve liberty
The next two questions should be answered in one or two paragraphs, using complete sentences.
9) Why does
- in a larger republic, there will be more distinct parties and interests and they are less likely to make up a majority. If they do make a majority, they will find it harder to communicate effectively with each other in a large republic than in a small one. Also, even if one state is dominated by a faction, it is not likely that other states will be dominated by the same faction.
10) According to the text and in Federalist #51, how was
- separate branches of government would struggle to retain their Constitutional powers from in-roads by the other branches, e.g., legislature would defend its law-making powers from attempts by executive or judiciary to block or create laws.
- Personal ambition of officials in each branch would check the ambition of the others.
- In Federalist #51, compound republic separated powers between the federal and state governments in addition to separation within the federal government
- Under the checks and balances concept, separate branch shared powers, so that president could veto laws passed by Congress but Congress could overturn the veto. President could appoint judges but only with the Senate’s consent.