This page contains references that may interest you if you wish to
explore an issue further. None of these is required.
Wikipedia description of the 1936 Literary Digest poll that predicted
Alf Landon would beat FDR in the presidential election.
- Use of randomization tests in biology / agriculture (general articles/books):
- Ludbrook and Dudley, 1998. Why permutation tests are superior
to t and F tests in biomedical research. American Statistician 52:127-132.
Surveys biomedical literature. Experimental groups usually constructed by
random assignment of treatments to non random samples. This matches
the randomization approach, not the more typical 'sample from a
normal population' justification of the t or F tests.
- Manly, B.F.G. 2006. Randomization, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo
Methods in Biology. 3rd ed. CRC Press.
Book length treatment of randomization tests and related techniques,
with biological examples from many fields.
- Good, P. 2010. Permutation, parametric, and bootstrap tests of
This is the 3rd edition with a different title than the 1st ed.
Includes theory of why randomization / permutation tests work.
Chapter 13 on Publishing your results is very readable and useful advice.
- Examples of randomization tests in biology (some papers from diverse fields):
- Bull, LS, Haywood, J and Pledger, S. 2004
Components of phenotypic variation in the morphometrics of shearwater
- Crist, TO, et al. 2003.
Partitioning species diversity across landscapes and regions: A
hierarchical analysis of alpha, beta, and gamma diversity
AMERICAN NATURALIST. 162:734-743
- Su, S., P. Cassey, and T.M. Blackburn. 2014. Patterns of non-randomness
in the composition and characteristics of the Taiwanese bird trade.
BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS 16:2563-2575.
- Van de Vliet, P. et al. 2003.
Assessing the additional impact of fitness training in depressed
psychiatric patients receiving multifaceted treatment: a replicated
DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION 25:1344-1353
- Williamson, GR. 2003.
Misrepresenting random sampling? A systematic review of research papers
in the Journal of Advanced Nursing
JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING 44:278-288.
- Reporting numeric results
- Kelley, T.L. 1924. How many figures are significant? SCIENCE 60:524.
Note: Probable error is an old name for 2/3 what is now called the standard error.
- Terman, G.L. 1978. Comments on significant figures in relation to
experimental errors. AGRONOMY JOURNAL 70:519-520.
Suggests rounding "treatments means to 10% of their standard errors".