"infiltration" - individual women working way into graduate programs

Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, Chicago, etc.


1888 on, women 40 to 60 percent of students at Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. 

Libbie Hyman (1888-1969)

five-volume survey of invertebrate physiology, embryology & taxonomy


Nettie Stevens (1861-1912)

enter Stanford 1896;

PhD. Bryn Mawr 1903

first to establish that chromosomes come in pairs & describe chromosomes of fruit fly "Drosophila melanogaster" & prove that chromosomes determined sex.


illustrators – biology, geology

Florence Bascom (1862-1945)

   father president Univ. Wisconsin

   first woman PhD. Johns Hopkins

   1896 hired U.S. Geological Survey

   1903 Bryn Mawr


Chemistry Ph.D.s Bryn Mawr, Chicago;

   Women in subfields of nutrition, biochemistry, nuclear chemistry (Marie Curie, Lise Meitner), crystallography (criticized as too many women making field into "intellectual knitting".  William Henry Bragg & J.D. Bernal in UK willing to support female students – Rosalind Franklin – double helix DNA),


Anna Botsford Comstock (1854-1930)

1874 Cornell – marry zoology prof John Comstock

NY State hired her to write & illustrate nature pamphlets

1899 Anna asst prof at Cornell, first woman – immediately demoted to lecturer for thirteen years;

"women's work" in sci - "computers" in astronomical observatories, cataloguers in museums, researchers for others;