old sources of power - human and animal, wind, water.

1700s, Britain supplies of wood low;

coal —

deeper mines difficult, dangerous — unable to pump water out below 100 feet;

steam power not new.

Greek engineer Hero - mechanical toys.

French landscape garden fountains

Scientific interest —

British Royal Society 1662

Robert Boyle, Denis Papin

Papin, "As water is converted into fire by steam & can then be easily condensed again by cold, it should not be too difficult to build engines which use moderate heat & only a little water to run."

experimental engine lifts 60-lb weight

1698 Thomas Savery, new type of pump,

- first to produce & sell workable steam engine designed for raising water.

Only able to pump water up 30 feet.

Thomas Newcomen

Direct injection, four times more efficient

1712 working engine in Birmingham,

1729, 40 engines at work in Britain, eight more in Sweden, France & Germany

- first practical working cylinder & piston engine.

Flaws in Newcomen engine:

- consumed tremendous fuel, expensive

- only designed to suit one purpose

James Watt

- instrument maker, Univ Glasgow.

systematic, experimental study of Newcomen engine.

- five major improvements:

1. separate chamber to condense steam, 1769;

roughly doubled efficiency.

2. double-acting engine.

3. parallel-motion linkage.

4. sun & planet gear mechanism

5. flyball governor

1774, Watt partnership with Matthew Boulton,

Boulton commercial sense of market;

political contacts - extention of patent,

good businessman;

knowledge of metalworking industry.

1800, Watt & Boulton sold over 470 steam engines.

Watt - modern measure of horsepower - 33,000 foot-pounds of work per minute.

Effect on iron production — variety of uses

1788-1796, output British iron industry doubled - then again 1796-1804.

Watt's engines made mining coal, tin & copper cheaper,

improvements in machine tool industry;

Watt's steam engine new source of power for factories,