"the cult of efficiency," the "efficiency craze";

Frederick Winslow Taylor, "scientific management" 

born 1859 wealthy Philly family;

laborer at Midvale Steel Co.

age 30, chief engineer at Midvale.

assumption that all workers basically lazy;

"time & motion studies" 

stopwatch, systematic analysis of work process,

defining "the one best way to do work",

"science of shovelling",

140 men do work previously requiring 600.

Industrial consultant.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

"micromotion" - "chronocyclograph",


"Cheaper by the Dozen":

"Dad would walk into a factory like the Pierce Arrow auto plant and announce that he could speed up production by one-fourth - and then he'd do it, too.  Dad always practiced what he preached, and it was impossible to tell where his scientific  management company ended and his family life began.  Our house was a sort of school for scientific management & elimination of wasted motions.  Dad took moving pictures of us children washing dishes, so he could figure out how we could reduce our motions & hurry through the task.  Dad installed work charts in the bathrooms.  Every child was required to initial the charts in the morning after he had brushed his teeth, taken a bath & made his bed.  At night, each child had to weigh himself, plot the figure on a graph, and initial the work charts again after he had done his homework and brushed his teeth.  It was regimentation, all right - but bear in mind the trouble most parents have in getting just one child off to school, and multiply it by twelve - some regimentation was necessary to prevent bedlam.  Dad even showed us the most efficient way to take a bath - run the soap up one side of your body, down the other, then a few strokes on the front and back, and you're done.  Yes, at home or on the job, Dad was always the efficiency expert.  He buttoned his vest from the bottom up, instead of top down, because bottom up took only three seconds and top down took seven.  For a while, Dad even tried shaving with two razors, but he finally gave that up - he grumbled, ‘I can save 44 seconds, but I wasted two minutes this morning putting this bandage on my throat.’  It wasn't the slashed throat that really bothered him - it was the two minutes."


1908 Penn State Univ. – industrial engineering;

home economics - "domestic science"

Christine Frederick.

Domestic technology as big business.

Promoted as labor-saving equipment.

1920s electrical appliances - vacuum cleaners, washing machines, electric irons, etc.

raised expectations,

"more work for mother."

"household germ"

family chauffeur.