1700s Joseph & Etienne Montgolfier;
1783 35-foot diameter fabric/paper hot-air balloon,
demonstration Paris Academy of Science.
1870s German glider pilot Otto Lilienthal
- killed 1896 in crash;
1880s British Hiram Maxim - "Leviathan" steam-powered aircraft.
- Octave Chanute;
- U.S. astronomer Samuel Pierpont Langley, sec'y Smithsonian;
1898 US Army & Navy $60,000 for experiments.
Potomac crash Dec 8, 1903.
- Dec, 17, 1903 Wright Bros - Kitty Hawk NC.
- 1908 demonstrate plane for military
- Glenn Curtiss - 1907 Aerial Experiment Association;
- France competition - 1909 Louis Bleriot across English Channel.
- 1909 great air meet at Reims;
1911, race France to London
Start WWI: Germans 450 planes, French 600, British 160
Turn of century European arms build-up,
Maxim, "Hang your chemistry & electricity! If you want to make a pile of money, invent something that will enable Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater ease."
Dreadnought - steam turbine power, firing range 8 miles.
US Teddy Roosevelt, Alfred Thayer Mahan - naval power key to nat'l strength.
1914 conflict of Serbia & Austria-Hungary;
US Naval Consulting Board, Thomas Edison.
National Research Council - physicists.
- April 2, 1917 Wilson accuses Germany of mounting 'a challenge to all mankind" - call "to make the world safe for democracy" - "The war to end all wars."
- Railroad Administration. Shipping Board. Food Administration - Herbert Hoover
submarine detection, hydrophones, depth charges.
aviation RH – German Anthony Fokker, British Sopwith Camel, Manfred von Richthofen "Red Baron", American Eddie Rickenbacker.
- Congress $640 million building planes, largest single appropriation for specific purpose to date – made 12,000 planes per year by 1918.
1914, aircraft IY worth less than a million dollars; 1919 31 companies making planes & parts $14 million.
- chemical warfare - mustard gas, chlorine, phosgene;
Popular science gadgets - "electro-gyro-cruisers", "trench destroyers," robot soldiers, acid guns, death ray.