Industrial Revolution:

Britain rapid population growth —

more workers, larger potential market

"the Agricultural Revolution" — Britain 1700s.

Jethro Tull

Greater variety of crops, crop rotation.


increased food production.

1750, most roads loose stone

turnpike system — first 1663

1760-1777 Parliament 452 turnpike acts

most under 20 miles long

John MacAdam

Adam Smith - roads "the greatest of all improvements, opening new markets to trade and breaking down monopolies."

stagecoach service

1740s, 48 hours London to Birmingham; 1780s 19 hours.

Ship transport:

1796-1815, six new docks in London, three in Liverpool


age of canal building

- 1758-1802, Parliament 165 new canal projects.

Canal mania

1820 Institite of Civil Engineers

1802 Britain 600 miles of new canals

Britain periodically at war.

mercantilist philosophy, colonies important - supply raw materials to mother country, market for goods produced in mother country.