Britain rapid population growth
more workers, larger potential market
"the Agricultural Revolution" Britain 1700s.
Greater variety of crops, crop rotation.
increased food production.
1750, most roads loose stone
turnpike system first 1663
1760-1777 Parliament 452 turnpike acts
most under 20 miles long
Adam Smith - roads "the greatest of all improvements, opening new markets to trade and breaking down monopolies."
1740s, 48 hours London to Birmingham; 1780s 19 hours.
1796-1815, six new docks in London, three in Liverpool
age of canal building
- 1758-1802, Parliament 165 new canal projects.
1820 Institite of Civil Engineers
1802 Britain 600 miles of new canals
Britain periodically at war.
mercantilist philosophy, colonies important - supply raw materials to mother country, market for goods produced in mother country.