End WWII, Europe lost over 30 million people. 

Hitler, "We may be destroyed, but if we are, we shall drag a world in flames down with us.” 

75% of Berlin levelled or damaged,

French closed off 16 million acres - unexploded bombs.


1939-1945, US GNP more than doubled.

new industries - airplanes, synthetic rubber, aluminum.


multipolar world to bipolar world;

US world's largest navy, strongest air force, monopoly on new atom bomb.

1947 military 33% entire US budget,

Stalin, "You are either w/ us or against us."

March, 1946 Winston Churchill, "from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."

Soviet Union - Poland & Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania.  US – Latin America, Pacific islands, Middle East.

March, 1947 "Truman doctrine" - world divided between two "alternate ways of life".

February 1948 Communist coup Czechoslovakia,

Truman - Soviet Union "a growing menace to the very survival of freedom". 

"domino theory"

1948 US Nat'l Security Council – USSR engaging US in a 'struggle for power, a 'cold war' in which our national security is at stake - therefore, the US needs to undertake a world-wide counteroffensive against Soviet-directed world communism." 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949; Soviets Warsaw Pact.


1949, USSR nuclear weapon

US diplomat, "This is now a different world."

US civil defense program.

backyard bomb shelter - Popular Mechanics;

"How to Survive an Atomic Bomb": "After an explosion, things are probably going to look different when you get outside.  If the bomb hit within a mile & half of where you are, things are going to look very different."

"duck & cover" drills.


hydrogen bomb (H-bomb or Super). Fusion;

Oppenheimer, "Hiroshima was a mistake & Nagasaki a crime".

Edward Teller

Klaus Fuchs,


Military sponsored research – Stanford, MIT;

1960s, MIT $200 million/year sponsored research contracts;

harder "to tell whether MIT is a university with many government research labs appended to it, or a cluster of government labs with a very good educational institution attached."