End WWII, Europe lost over 30 million people.
Hitler, "We may be destroyed, but if we are, we shall drag a world in flames down with us.”
75% of Berlin levelled or damaged,
French closed off 16 million acres - unexploded bombs.
1939-1945, US GNP more than doubled.
new industries - airplanes, synthetic rubber, aluminum.
multipolar world to bipolar world;
US world's largest navy, strongest air force, monopoly on new atom bomb.
1947 military 33% entire US budget,
Stalin, "You are either w/ us or against us."
March, 1946 Winston Churchill, "from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."
Soviet Union - Poland & Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. US – Latin America, Pacific islands, Middle East.
March, 1947 "Truman doctrine" - world divided between two "alternate ways of life".
February 1948 Communist coup Czechoslovakia,
Truman - Soviet Union "a growing menace to the very survival of freedom".
1948 US Nat'l Security Council – USSR engaging US in a 'struggle for power, a 'cold war' in which our national security is at stake - therefore, the US needs to undertake a world-wide counteroffensive against Soviet-directed world communism."
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949; Soviets Warsaw Pact.
1949, USSR nuclear weapon
US diplomat, "This is now a different world."
US civil defense program.
backyard bomb shelter - Popular Mechanics;
"How to Survive an Atomic Bomb": "After an explosion, things are probably going to look different when you get outside. If the bomb hit within a mile & half of where you are, things are going to look very different."
"duck & cover" drills.
hydrogen bomb (H-bomb or Super). Fusion;
Oppenheimer, "Hiroshima was a mistake & Nagasaki a crime".
Military sponsored research – Stanford, MIT;
1960s, MIT $200 million/year sponsored research contracts;
harder "to tell whether MIT is a university with many government research labs appended to it, or a cluster of government labs with a very good educational institution attached."