1928 consumer spending falling, slowdown in construction;

Black Monday, October 28, 1929 - Great Crash.    

Oct.-Dec. 1929, unemployment jumped from under 500,000 to over 4 million. 

1931, 5000 banks closed,

NY Stock Exchange, Chicago Board of Trade shut down.

1933 15 million out of work, over 25% unemployment.

1929-1933, GNP fell 29%, construction down 78%, manufacturing down 54%. 

Steel industry 12% of capacity.

1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

"the only thing we have to fear is fear itself".

New Deal,

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Arthur Morgan,

Army Corps of Engineers;

Rural Electrification Administration



1939 New York World's Fair - "The World of Tomorrow".

Trylon & Perisphere

Westinghouse "Battle of the Centuries" - Mrs. Drudge vs. Mrs Modern)

DuPont "Wonder World of Chemistry" – “better things for better living"

Westinghouse - Elektro the Moto-Man,

RCA television

General Motors - "Futurama"


1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia,

1937 Japan invaded China.

1938 Hitler Austria & Czechoslovakia. 

1939 Axis military alliance. 

Hitler invaded Poland –

spring 1940 Germany overruns Denmark, Norway, Belgium & Netherlands.

June, 1940 French army fell apart

bomb attacks on London –

Churchill, "We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas & oceans, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight in the fields, we shall never surrender."

June, 1941, German forces invade USSR.


radar ("radio detection & ranging").

German Luftwaffe 4,000 bombers, Royal Air Force 330 fighters;

"invisible curtain"

1939, radar stations every 25 miles.


December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor;

Dec. 8, US declared war on Japan –

Germany & Italy then declared war on US.


1944 U.S. 96,000 planes per year –


1941-1945, 18 US shipyards built 2708 Liberty ships

entire ship built 63 hours - standardization.


1942 Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD)


"I don't think we could continue the war without the jeep.  It does everything.  It goes everywhere.  It's as faithful as a dog, as strong as a mule, & as agile as a goat.  It constantly carries twice what it was designed for & still keeps on going.  It can turn on a dime & leave nine cents change.  Riding in one feels like falling downstairs, & it takes 24 hours to stop shaking, but it's not so bad after you get used to it."  

1940 entire US army 12,000 motor vehicles - within five years, over 600,000 jeeps.


June 6, 1944 D-Day –

April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide. 

May 4, 1945, Germany surrendered