1928 consumer spending falling, slowdown in construction;
Black Monday, October 28, 1929 - Great Crash.
Oct.-Dec. 1929, unemployment jumped from under 500,000 to over 4 million.
1931, 5000 banks closed,
NY Stock Exchange, Chicago Board of Trade shut down.
1933 15 million out of work, over 25% unemployment.
1929-1933, GNP fell 29%, construction down 78%, manufacturing down 54%.
Steel industry 12% of capacity.
1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
"the only thing we have to fear is fear itself".
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Army Corps of Engineers;
Rural Electrification Administration
1939 New York World's Fair - "The World of Tomorrow".
Trylon & Perisphere
Westinghouse "Battle of the Centuries" - Mrs. Drudge vs. Mrs Modern)
DuPont "Wonder World of Chemistry" – “better things for better living"
Westinghouse - Elektro the Moto-Man,
General Motors - "Futurama"
1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia,
1937 Japan invaded China.
1938 Hitler Austria & Czechoslovakia.
1939 Axis military alliance.
Hitler invaded Poland –
spring 1940 Germany overruns Denmark, Norway, Belgium & Netherlands.
June, 1940 French army fell apart
bomb attacks on London –
Churchill, "We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas & oceans, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight in the fields, we shall never surrender."
June, 1941, German forces invade USSR.
radar ("radio detection & ranging").
German Luftwaffe 4,000 bombers, Royal Air Force 330 fighters;
1939, radar stations every 25 miles.
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor;
Germany & Italy then declared war on US.
1944 U.S. 96,000 planes per year –
1941-1945, 18 US shipyards built 2708 Liberty ships
entire ship built 63 hours - standardization.
1942 Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD)
"I don't think we could continue the war without the jeep. It does everything. It goes everywhere. It's as faithful as a dog, as strong as a mule, & as agile as a goat. It constantly carries twice what it was designed for & still keeps on going. It can turn on a dime & leave nine cents change. Riding in one feels like falling downstairs, & it takes 24 hours to stop shaking, but it's not so bad after you get used to it."
1940 entire US army 12,000 motor vehicles - within five years, over 600,000 jeeps.
June 6, 1944 D-Day –
April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide.
May 4, 1945, Germany surrendered