Civil War 1861. 


Black women & children abandoned - fled to Union army camps;


North & south women form thousands of aid societies - get clothes, food, medical supplies to troops; 

North collected $15 million worth, raising money, selling needlework, holding concerts;


women ran farms & businesses;

U.S. Treasury Dept hires women to replace male clerks;

Lincoln approved of hiring war widows;

Criticism of their morals, worried about women as distraction - fired at war's end;


South women new public visibility;

New Orleans mainly female population;

sewing bees to make rebel banners, taught schoolchildren rebel songs, 

pinned Confederate flags to dress,

spit at Union soldiers;


3,200 women nurses: example of British Florence Nightingale;

Doubts whether proper for "refined modest ladies" to care for "strange men and crude soldiers from all walks of life." 

Union Army appointed Dorothea Dix superintendent of female nurses;

1840s Dix teacher who visited Mass. Jail - horrified that mentally ill thrown in with criminals;

establishment of 32 mental hospitals;

war nurses experience as administrators; great risk;


women as spies;

women as soldiers disguised as men;

cooking & laundry;


1863 Stanton & Anthony -

National Women's Loyal League (NY)

Stanton: "woman is vitally interested and responsible with men for the final settlement of this problem of self-government."

Openly political -  criticized Pres. Lincoln for not acting boldly enough;

Jan 1, 1863 Lincoln - Emancipation Proclamation - freed only slaves in states under Confederate rule;

women urged passage of 13th Amendment to Constitution to abolish slavery;

NWLL 5,000 members, met weekly.  Speaking tours, collect almost 400,000 names on petition for 13th Amendment.

Anthony called for League to demand women's suffrage as their "birth right of freedom"  - resolution passed, but scared away many members;


Post Civil-War society:

Southern "black codes"; race riots in Memphis, New Orleans; Ku Klux Klan;


- 1870 15th amendment: "The right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude".


National Association of Colored Women