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1810-1860, American Industrial Revolution.
-1810, US industry turning out $115 million worth of goods; 1860, $2 billion;
- second only to Britain in total industrial output.
- 1810 most cloth still made in homes; 1860, textiles America's largest industry.
Other businesses - clocks;
1800 in US, only one white adult in fifty owned clock.
Connecticut clockmaker Eli Terry.
Special water-powered machines;
1820 2500 clocks per year, 30 workmen; price down to $7.50
1830, stamp out clock gears from sheets of brass; $1.50
U.S. military –
French goal - weapons with standardized, interchangeable parts. "armory practice"
1798 contract Eli Whitney.
promised 10,000 muskets with interchangeable parts in two years - took nine years, not fully interchangeable.
Arms manufacturer Simeon North -
1) principle of interchangeable parts - make all fit standard gauge.
2) 1816 first US milling machine.
federal armories, Springfield, Mass. & Harpers Ferry. VA.
Blanchard lathe - copying lathe, Thomas Blanchard 1819 - make gunstock 22 min.
New England manufacturer John Hall - 1824, 1000 rifles, interchangeable parts.
Complex system of jigs, fixtures, pattern pieces, and "go or no-go" gauges.
Three sets of gauges - working gauges, inspection gauges, & master gauges.
Machinery - automatic stop mechanisms, "self-acting".
"One boy with these machines can perform more work than ten men with files in the same time & with greater accuracy. The best person that has ever worked with my cutting machines is a boy only 18 years old, who never did a stroke of work in his life before that."
Causes problems at Harpers Ferry Armory – worker resistance.
Interchangability tremendously expensive.
Samuel Colt revolver or six-shooter – popular 1840s - not made interchangeable.
- 1840s & 1850s sewing machine - Elias Howe;
320 stitches per minute,
pig iron, bar iron & sheet iron, wire, bar & sheet steel, varnish, wood casing.
I.M. Singer - marketing - installment buying, repair shops, demonstrations, advertising.
Boston importer Francis Cabot Lowell;
1820s new mill town, Lowell MA.
new labor source - farmers' daughters in New England.
working 73 hours a week, 12/13 hours a day.
paternalistic system of labor management – company-run boardinghouses.
literary magazine “Lowell Offering”.
mills five & six stories tall, multistory towers, clocks & bells; two levels of waterwheels powering 10,000 looms, employing over 10,000 women & men.
At peak one million yards of cloth per week – export to South America, Russia & India.
1850, Lowell second largest city in Mass.
One factory alone one thousand workers.
1830s, increasing competition;
1834 wage cuts 15% - workers on strike.
immigrant workers from Ireland, especially children.
Agricultural technology –
McCormick reaper - horse-drawn reaping machine, 1830s
tapping market through advertising, sales network.
Prairie Breaker & John Deere plows - steel-covered share which resisted soil sticking to it & clogging up cutting.