Benito Mussolini – Italy;
Nazi party, Hitler - Germany.
1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia,
1937 Japan invaded China.
1938 Hitler took over Austria & Czechoslovakia.
1939 Germany, Italy & Japan form Axis;
Soviets sign nonaggression pact.
Hitler invades Poland;
Britain, France declare war on Germany.
spring 1940 German forces sweep through Denmark, Norway, Belgium & Netherlands.
June, 1940 Germans swept into Paris.
bomb attacks on London;
June, 1941, Germany invades USSR.
Britain-US technical cooperation:
radar ("radio detection & ranging").
Worried - German Luftwaffe 4,000 bombers; Royal Air Force 330 fighters;
1939, British radar stations every 25 miles along coast.
MIT “Radiation Laboratory”;
Ultimately 4000 employees;
problems of antenna design, precision tracking, amplification, noise suppression, production engineering.
1935-1938 US isolationism;
June, 1940 Congress tripled budget of War Dept.; nation's first peacetime draft;
"arsenal of democracy."
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor;
killing 2400 US soldiers & sailors.
Dec. 8, US declared war on Japan;
Germany & Italy then declare war on US.
Hermann Goerring, "Don't worry, the Americans can't build planes, only electric iceboxes & razor blades,"
1944 96,000 planes per year - B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, C-47 transport.
War Production Board.
1941-1945, 18 shipyards built 2708 Liberty ships - carry 9000 tons of cargo - 400 light tanks or 3000 jeeps.
entire ship built in four days,
"Rosie the Riveter".
1942 FDR Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD)
"I don't think we could continue the war without the jeep. It does everything. It goes everywhere. It's as faithful as a dog, as strong as a mule, & as agile as a goat. It constantly carries twice what it was designed for & still keeps on going. It can turn on a dime & leave nine cents change. Riding in one feels like falling downstairs, & it takes 24 hours to stop shaking, but it's not so bad after you get used to it."
1940 entire US army 12,000 motor vehicles – 1945 Ford & other manufacturers turned out over 600,000.
June 6, 1944 D-Day;
fall 1944 pushed German army back.
April 30, 1945 Hitler suicide.
May 4, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally.