European arms build-up,
Britain - Hiram Maxim, machine gun. "Hang your chemistry & electricity! If you want to make a pile of money, invent something that will enable Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater ease."
Dreadnought - steam-powered, iron hulls, larger & more accurate guns. British Navy HMS Dreadnought 1906 - firing range 8 miles. "No greater single step towards efficiency in war was ever made than the introduction of the turbine."
Teddy Roosevelt - political scientist & historian Alfred Thayer Mahan - naval power key to nat'l strength.
US Naval Consulting Board – Edison ("You are the one man who can turn dreams into realities, to help us get proper machinery & facilities for utilizing the natural inventive genius of Americans to meet the new conditions of warfare abroad.")
National Research Council – US physicists;
Robert Millikan - submarine detection R&D facility;
Willis Whitney, development detection devices.
April 2, 1917 Wilson asks Congress to declare war – "to make the world safe for democracy"; "the war to end all wars."
Government control of industry, relying on experts.
Food Administration - Herbert Hoover - "food will win the war".
War contracts for business expansion.
1916 Verdun, 600,000 killed.
German chemical industry - poison gas warfare.
Mustard gas, chlorine, phosgene;
ultimate weapon - popular science magazines - "electro-gyro-cruisers" & "trench destroyers," robot soldiers, electrocution devices; “death ray”.
US & European women ambulance and supply truck drivers; (Gertrude Stein & Alice B. Toklas)
WWI systematizing science & technology;
Taylorism, "one best way" to wage worldwide war.