Mass production – needs mass consumption;

Taylor, scientific management = production engineering;

new science of "consumption engineering".

Industrial design.

"artificial obsolescence,"


appearance of machines:

1800s Gothic steam engine;

1920-1930s modern is beautiful;

streamlining - sweeping horizontal lines, rounded corners, smooth surfaces – image of efficiency, speed.

Streamlining craze;

Douglas DC3.

1934 Chrysler Airflow.

1933 Burlington Zephyr - "wingless airplanes on tracks," "symbols of an era" - 112 mph.

home appliances -"cleanlining";

1932 Sears - Raymond Loewy, redesign Coldspot refrigerator;

annual model changes;

Waring blender, Revere pots.



1920s celebration of technology in art –

1930 Chrysler building, NY;


"Futurism" - glorifying machine and technology, translating fast rhythms of modern life into powerful visual art.

Europe, early 1900s;

Stop-action photos of Edward Muybridge, 1878 "Galloping Horse". Giacomo Balla - 1913 "Speed of an Automobile";

Umberto Boccioni - 1913 "Dynamism of a Cyclist”;

Boccioni - 1901 "Untitled (Speeding Automobile)";

Balla - 1912 "Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash".

Boccioni - 1911 "States of Mind: the Farewells". 


1913 Marcel Duchamp "Nude Descending a Staircase";

Francis Picabia, 1917 “Portrait of Marie Laurencin”


American Alexander Calder - mobiles. 


"Precisionism" - beauty of modern technology;

Alfred Stieglitz photo "Water Tower and Radio City, New York"; Ralston Crawford's 1931 "Vertical Building;

Georgia O'Keeffe 1926 "City Night";

Joseph Stella "Voice of the City of New York Interpreted";

Charles Sheeler - 1927 "River Rouge" 1945 "Fugue".

Edward Hopper - 1932 "Gas Station".

Jose Arentz - 1935 ad for Goodrich Silvertown Tires;

Ralston Crawford - 1939 "Overseas Highway".


Civil engineering -

Hoover Dam 1931-1936,

New Deal, FDR Tennessee Valley Authority. 

Lewis Hine - 1930 "Heart of the Turbine" subtitled "Worker at his Shrine";