Modern World History
From the Age of Discovery to the Present

Age of Discovery: 15th-16th century

Early World Powers: Portugal and Spain
Portugal:
    Discovers Brazil sailing south around tip of Africa to find India
    Dominant force in Indian Ocean
    Early Monopoly on Spice Trade
Spain:
    New World Colonies extracted for wealth: gold
    Plantation system
    Slavery

Colonies: 1700s

Colonial Trade Routes

Colony Trade Routes

Map source: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/ch4/maps.htm

Slave Trade

Slave Trade

Slave Trade

Map source: http://www.wwnorton.com/worlds/ch4/maps.htm

Protestant Reformation: 16th century


Martin Luther

Counter Reformation


Spanish Inquisition

Long term effects: Literacy in 1900

Galileo
Isaac Newton
Why Early Leaders Declined
Spain and Portugal very wealthy in 16th century from New World gold
    Spent money on wars and luxuries
    Did not have to make things: could buy them
    Did not have to improve agriculture: could buy food
    Eventually money ran out
Italy was a renaissance center of trade and manufacture
    But no colonies in New World
    Old power structures prevented change

Dutch East Indies Company
Netherlands
    Half the population lived in cities: industrial
    Prosperous shipping, trading: Middlemen
    Money lending allowed
    Protestant
Spain wages war on Protestantism in Netherlands
Dutch send own ships to Indian Ocean: Dutch East Indies Company
Soon dominant in Spice Trade
Dutch East Indies Company had virtual Monopoly on  spice Islands of Indonesia

British Rise
British pirates: better ships, guns
American Colonies: settled by dissidents to start a new life
Britain ahead of Europe in


Queen Elizabeth

British in India

British Empire

 

Imperialism 1700s
Other European countries scramble to set up colonies all over world
France
Belgium
Germany
Denmark
Colonial Africa

Industrial Revolution

Spanish Colonies: South and Central America

“Spain transmitted to us everything it had: its language, its architecture, its religion, its dress and its food, its military tradition and its judicial and civil institutions; wheat, livestock, sugar cane, even our dogs and chickens.
But we couldn’t receive from Spain Western methods of production and distribution, technique, capital, and the ideas of European society, because Spain didn’t have them.”

Age of Imperialism

Imperialism in 1900

Map source: http://www.warandpeace.agnostos-theos.net/cartography.html

WWI: clash of imperialist powers

WWII: Reaction to WWI

Axis Powers 1942
Map source: baby.indstate.edu/ gga/gga_cart/gecar127.htm

Independence after WWII

Independence after WWII

Map source: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/resource/colonial.htm

Cold War: Reaction to WWII



Hunger Today

Colonialism and Repressive governments have had a huge impact on World Hunger.

Return to World Food Issues webpage