Iowa State University

Iowa State University

2009-2011 Courses and Programs

Iowa State University Catalog

Search for classes offered this term

Catalog Index

A| B| C | D| E| F| G| H| I | J| K| L| M| N| O| P| Q| R| S| T| U| V| W| X| Y| Z

Biology

100 |200 |300 |400 |

www.biology.iastate.edu

(Interdepartmental Undergraduate Program)

James T. Colbert, Program Coordinator

Iowa State University is a major center for research and education in the biological sciences. With over 200 faculty in the life sciences, students have the opportunity to learn from some of the nation's leaders in biological research and teaching and to participate in innovative, meaningful research projects that explore frontiers of biology. Few other universities have such a wealth of faculty expertise available to undergraduate students, making Iowa State's Biology Program the logical choice for those who want to participate in a thriving academic community.

The faculties of the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology and the Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology jointly offer the undergraduate biology major. This high quality academic program has the flexibility to accommodate a range of career goals while taking advantage of the university's strengths in science and technology. A bachelor's degree in biology provides excellent preparation for graduate study in biological disciplines ranging from the molecular to the ecological levels, and for entrance into various professional schools, such as human medicine, physical therapy, or veterinary medicine. The major is well suited for those who plan to teach biology, who wish to enter government or industrial employment in health or environmental professions, or who prefer educational breadth as an end in itself. By working with our professional and faculty advisers, it is possible to design a unique program of study that will meet student needs and objectives.

Students with special interests and aptitudes should consider combining biology with a minor or a second major in another subject, such as chemistry, environmental studies, journalism, mathematics, music, statistics, or many other subjects offered by the university.

Undergraduate Study

Biology majors, start their studies in the biological sciences by taking a unified biology core curriculum consisting of six integrated courses, five with labs. The first year (Biol 211, 211L, 212, 212L) provides a broad introduction to the nature of life. During the first year, students also take Biol 110 and 111, which are half semester courses designed to introduce the student to the discipline of biology and opportunities for careers in biology. The second year explores concepts in ecology in Biol 312 and the principles of genetics in Biol 313 and 313L. The third year includes courses in cell and molecular biology (Biol 314, 314L) and evolutionary biology (Biol 315). Biology majors must take an additional 20 credits of biological science at the 300 level or above from an approved list of courses. Of these, at least 8 credits must be taken as biology courses, and a minimum of two laboratory or field courses must also be included. Students may earn the B.S. degree in Biology from either the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences or from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Contact the Biology Program Office for details regarding differences in general education and course requirements which are specific to these colleges.

Biology majors should carefully consider their selection of upper-level courses to allow them to emphasize one or more of the sub-disciplines of Biology relevant to their post-baccalaureate objectives. The Biology Program has identified areas of special interest for many disciplines within Biology, with supporting 300-, 400-, and 500-level courses, enabling majors to gain substantial experience in these areas prior to graduation. Faculty advisers with experience in these subject areas work with students to provide advice about preparing for future training in a range of Biology-related professions. Consult the Biology Program advising staff for more information.

Most biology courses numbered 300 or above can be used to satisfy the additional credit requirement. Some courses taught in other departments can also be applied to the biology major; advanced students should consider including 500 level courses in their programs. Check the Biology Program's World Wide Web site for a complete listing of acceptable upper-level life science courses

Biology majors must demonstrate competency in their understanding of the biological sciences. Thus, grades of C- or better in all biological science courses applied to the major are required. Furthermore, in order to graduate, a student must have a cumulative average in the major of at least 2.00.

Courses offered at other locations

In addition to biological science courses taught on campus, students may take courses at various remote locations and arrange to have the credits count toward the advanced courses required in the biology major. Courses in field and aquatic biology are offered at the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory. Courses in marine biology can be taken at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory in Mississippi. Iowa State University is a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies, and students may take courses at the organization's field Station in Costa Rica. Courses taught at field Stations associated with other universities throughout the country may also be applied to the degree. Attending a summer field Station adds an important component to an undergraduate program of study.

Courses Offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory at Milford, Iowa

Iowa Lakeside Lab is an Iowa Regents facility located at Lake Okoboji in northwest Iowa where various summer courses in field and aquatic biology are offered. Any of the following courses taken at the lab are directly applicable to the degree program in Biology. See the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory entry elsewhere in the catalog for a full description of the courses.

Courses offered at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory is affiliated with the University of Southern Mississippi. Iowa State students may register for marine biology courses and transfer credit to their degree programs under the number Biol 480. Written permission of the Biology Program Director is required for this arrangement. Courses that are available each summer may be viewed at www.coms.usm.edu.

Courses offered at Summer Biological Field Stations

Courses taken at summer field Stations may be transferred to Iowa State University as credit in Biol 481. Such Stations are found throughout the country and often offer courses that emphasize the adaptation of plants and animals to unique environments. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field Stations in different biomes, e.g. marine/coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mts.

Courses offered by the Organization for Tropical Studies

Iowa State students may register for courses in tropical biology taught in Costa Rica by the Organization for Tropical Studies. Credit is transferred to Iowa State as Biology 482. For further information check www.ots.duke.edu or inquire in the Biology Program Office.

Undergraduate research. Students who have interest in biological research are encouraged to become involved in the research projects of faculty members on campus. Those doing so may receive credit for the experience in Biol 490. Internship experiences are often available at other universities and at industrial or government laboratories. Students participating in such projects may receive internship credit in Biol 494. Making the effort to find a suitable research mentor and engaging in research work can be one of the most valuable experiences of an undergraduate education.

International experience. Because major discoveries in science often result from global efforts, biology majors are encouraged to include an international or study abroad component in their degree programs. This can be done by participating in international field trips originating from the ISU campus in Biol 394 or similar courses in other departments. Many students choose to study abroad, attending a university in another country for up to a year as an exchange student. Minors in Emerging Global Disease, International Studies, or a foreign language can add an international emphasis to a degree in biology. Biology advisers are eager to help plan and arrange such experiences with interested students.

Supporting course requirements. Understanding the modern biological sciences requires an understanding of the physical and Mathematical sciences. Consequently, a minimum number of credits in general chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physics are required. See the Biology Program Web Site for specific supporting science requirements.

The Math requirement is competency based. After demonstrating competency in algebra and trigonometry, biology majors must take: two semesters of calculus; or two semesters of Statistics; or one semester of calculus and one semester of Statistics chosen from a list of approved courses available on the Biology Program Web Site and in the Biology Program Office.

Students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, must fulfill the foreign language and general education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog for that college. Students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences must meet the general education requirements for that college as listed elsewhere in the catalog.

Given the important role of writing in the modern sciences, biology majors must demonstrate English competency by earning a minimum of C in both English 150 and 250 or equivalent composition courses and in one advanced writing course numbered English 302 through 316, or Jl MC 347.

Customizing a degree The advantage of choosing a biology major is the flexibility it allows in customizing a program of study to individual goals. That said, the faculty recognizes that many students studying biology have common goals. Consequently, the faculty has developed specific recommendations for students interested in pursuing the following areas of study:

Teacher Licensure. Biology majors seeking licensure to teach biology in secondary schools must meet requirements of the Teacher Education Program as well as those of the Biology Program. In addition they must apply formally for admission to the teacher education program. See the section on Teacher Education for a list of licensure areas, degree requirements, and other information about this program.

Premedical and Prehealth Professions Studies. Biology majors who will go on to medical or health professional schools are urged to determine the entrance requirements for the institutions where they might study. A list of courses recommended for those who wish to pursue a pre-med curriculum is available in the Biology Program office.

Preveterinary Studies. Many students whose goal is to attend veterinary school choose Biology as their major. The requirements for entrance to the Iowa State Veterinary College are listed elsewhere in this bulletin and should be consulted as programs of study are planned.

Preparation for Graduate Studies. Students who are considering graduate school to further their education in a biological sciences should identify a faculty member who has similar interests. Faculty can mentor students as undergraduates providing a smooth transition to graduate school.

Minor: A minor in Biology is offered by the Biology Program. The minor requires 15 credits in Biology, and includes the completion of the specific courses listed below: Biol 211 and 211L, 212 and 212L, and 7 credits in biology courses numbered 300 or above. Nine (9) credits of the required courses must only apply to the minor. For more information, see the Biology Program Web Site, or contact the Biology, Environmental Science, and Genetics Student Services Office in 103 Bessey Hall.

Graduate Study

Biology is an undergraduate major only. Persons interested in graduate study in the biological sciences should apply directly to one of the life science graduate programs at Iowa State University. Interdepartmental graduate offerings in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Genetics; Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; Neuroscience; Plant Physiology; Toxicology; Immunobiology; and Environmental Science are also available. (See Index.)

A non-thesis master's degree in Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies (biological sciences) has been established particularly for those who wish to have a more diversified program of advanced study than that generally permitted by specific departments and programs.

Courses primarily for undergraduate students

Biol 101. Introductory Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.SS.Life considered at cellular, organism, and population levels. Function and diversity of the living world. Presentation of basic biological principles as well as topics and issues of current human interest. Non-majors only. Only one of Biol 101 or 211 may count toward graduation.

Biol 110. Introduction to Biology. Cr. 0.5. F.Orientation to the scope of the biological sciences, and discussion of professional opportunities. Required of first year biology majors. Satisfactory-fail only.

Biol 111. Opportunities in Biology. (1-0) Cr. 0.5. S.Introduction to biological science disciplines and professional opportunities through faculty presentations which examine a variety of current research topics. Satisfactory-fail only.

Biol 155. Human Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.A survey course of human biology, including principal structures and functions of the body systems and the diseases and disorders associated with them. Designed to meet general education requirements in natural science. Not recommended for those seeking a career in the allied health professions or for students majoring in life science.

Biol 165. Field Botany. (2-4) Cr. 2. F.SS.8 weeks. Field and laboratory studies of plants in various local habitats. Includes trees, shrubs, flowering plants and other green plants, lichens and fungi. Not recommended for students with professional interest in plant science.

Biol 173. Environmental Biology. (Cross-listed with Env S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.An introduction to the structure and function of natural systems at scales from the individual to the biosphere and the complex interactions between humans and their environment. Discussions of human population growth, biodiversity, sustainability, resource use, and pollution. Non-majors only.

Biol 204. Biodiversity. (Cross-listed with Env S). (4-0) Cr. 2. S.Prereq: One course in life sciences. Survey of the major groups of organisms and biological systems. Definition, measurements, and patterns of distribution of organisms. Sources of information about biodiversity. Not intended for major credit in the biological sciences. Half semester course.

Biol 211. Principles of Biology I. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.Prereq: High school biology and chemistry or credit or enrollment in Chem 163 or 177. Introduction to the nature of life, including the cellular basis of life; the nature of heredity; evolution; diversity of microbial, plant, and animal life; and principles of ecology. Intended for life science majors. Only one of Biol 101 or 211 may count toward graduation.

Biol 211L. Principles of Biology Laboratory I. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 211. Laboratory to accompany 211.

Biol 212. Principles of Biology II. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.Prereq: 211. Introduction to the nature of life, including the cellular basis of life; energy relationships; the nature of heredity; evolution; form and function of microbial, plant, and animal life.

Biol 212L. Principles of Biology Laboratory II. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.Prereq: credit or enrollment in 212. Laboratory to accompany 212.

Biol 255. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or Biol 101. An introduction to human anatomy, beginning with cells and tissues, surveying all body systems, relating form to function. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider Biol 351 for their anatomy background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 255L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 255. Investigation of human anatomy using models and dissections of preserved organs and model mammals. Pre-Medical students should consider 351 for their anatomy background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 256. Fundamentals of Human Physiology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or Biol 101, or 255 (recommended). An introduction to human physiology, studying the function of all body systems. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic and immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their physiology background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 256L. Fundamentals of Human Physiology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 256. Student-conducted experiments investigating concepts of human physiology with computer data acquisition and analysis. Interpretation of experimental results and preparation of lab reports. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their anatomy and physiology background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 258. Human Reproduction. (Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: Biol 101, or 155, or 211. Anatomy and physiology of human reproductive systems, including fertility, pregnancy, and delivery.

Biol 305. Embryology. (2-0) Cr. 2. S.Prereq: 212. Basic principles and processes of development. Course will cover classical as well as current aspects of developmental biology. Emphasis will be on vertebrate model systems. Not acceptable for credit in the major for Biology or Genetics major.

Biol 305L. Embryology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 305. Selected experiments demonstrating basic concepts in development. Mixture of live embryo experiments and vertebrate developmental anatomy.

Biol 306. Metabolic Physiology of Mammals. Cr. 3.Prereq: 211, 212. Introduction to physiology of metabolic function in mammals and other animals. Metabolic processes and their interactions with various subsystems, approached form an organismal perspective. Integration of cellular, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal processes, relevant to their control and integration at the nervous and endocrine system levels. Functional aspects of organismal physiology; energy and water balances, physiology of rest exercise, and environmental stress. Students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 306X and BIOL 335.

Biol 307. Women in Science and Engineering. (Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: a 200 level course in science, engineering or women's studies; Engl 250. The interrelationships of women and science and engineering examined from historical, sociological, philosophical, and biological perspectives. Factors contributing to underrepresentation; feminist critiques of science; examination of successful strategies.

Biol 312. Ecology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl, EnSci). (3-3) Cr. 4. F.SS.Prereq: 211L and 212L. Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology dealing with organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Laboratory and field exercises examine ecological principles and methods as well as illustrate habitats.

Biol 313. Principles of Genetics. (Cross-listed with Gen). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.Prereq: 211, 211L, 212, and 212L. Introduction to the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of plants, animals, and bacteria. Recombination, structure and replication of DNA, gene expression, cloning, quantitative and population genetics. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Gen 260, Gen 313 and 313L, Gen 320, Biol 313 and 313L, and Agron 320.

Biol 313L. Genetics Laboratory. (Cross-listed with Gen). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 313. Laboratory to accompany 313. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Biol 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.

Biol 314. Principles of Molecular Cell Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.Prereq: Biol 313. Integration of elementary principles of metabolism, bioenergetics, cell structure and function to develop a molecular view of how the cell works.

Biol 314L. Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 314. Laboratory to accompany Biology 314.

Biol 315. Biological Evolution. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.Prereq: 313. The mechanisms of evolution. Topics in microevolution: population genetics, natural selection, genetic variation, and adaptation. Macroevolution: speciation, extinction, phylogeny, and major evolutionary patterns.

Biol 328. Cell Physiology of Human Diseases. Cr. 3.Prereq: 212. Survey of macromolecular and ultrastructural organization of animal cell and membrane structures, including recent molecular discoveries in areas of genomics and proteomics involved with cell growth and cell interactions. Emphasis on selected topics of cellular functions with known human disease states.

Biol 330. Principles of Plant Physiology. (3-0) Cr. 3.Prereq: Biol 313 or Gen 320; Biol 314 or BBMB 301; Chem 231 or 332; Phys 106 or 111. An overview of classical and current concepts, principles and approaches regarding the basic mechanisms of plant function underlying growth, development and survival of plants. Topics covered include environmental and developmental signals, plant hormone action, signal transduction, mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism and photosynthesis. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 330L. Principles of Plant Physiology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 330. Laboratory to accompany Biol 330. Experiments and explorations illustrating fundamental principles of plant physiology. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 335. Principles of Animal Physiology. (3-3) Cr. 4. F.S.Prereq: Biol 314. Introduction to systemic functions with emphasis on mammals. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 336. Ecological and Evolutionary Animal Physiology. Cr. 3.Prereq: 211, 212. Study of mechanisms by which animals perform life-sustaining functions; the evolution and adaptive significance of physiology traits, the diversity of physiological mechanisms, and how physiology and ecology interact.

Biol 351. Comparative Chordate Anatomy. (3-4) Cr. 5. S.Prereq: 212, junior classification. The evolution of chordates as reflected in the anatomy of extinct and living forms. Lecture topics include the history and diversity of chordates; comparisons of anatomic structures among major groups, the adaptive significance of anatomic structures. Laboratory involves dissection of representative species.

Biol 352. Vertebrate Histology. (3-3) Cr. 4. S.Prereq: 212. Microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs, with an introduction to histological techniques.

Biol 353. Introductory Parasitology. (Cross-listed with Micro). (3-3) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: Biol 212. Biology and host-parasite relationships of major groups of animal parasites, and techniques of diagnosing and studying parasites.

Biol 354. Animal Behavior. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: 212. Ethological and sociobiological approaches to animal behavior. Genetic and developmental aspects of behavior, biological rhythms, orientation (including navigation, migration), communication, and social behavior (mating, aggression, parental care).

Biol 354L. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in Biol 354. Laboratory techniques for observation, description and analysis of animal activities; independent projects.

Biol 355. Plants and People. (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Credit in 211 and 211L. Uses of plants and fungi by humans and the importance of plants in the past, present and future. Discussion of fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, wood, medicines, and drugs, in the context of their agricultural, cultural, and economic roles in modern societies. Emphasis on origins and worldwide diversity of culturally important plants, their characteristics, and uses.

Biol 356. Dendrology. (Cross-listed with For). (2-4) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: Biol 211. Identification and ecology of North American woody plant species. Importance of woody plants in timber production and wildlife habitat. Natural disturbances, human impacts, management and restoration concerns for major North American forest regions will be addressed. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 364. Invertebrate Biology. Cr. 3-4. F.Prereq: Biol 212. Emphasis on diversity, development, physiology and behavior of invertebrate organisms- the "spineless wonders" of the world. Laboratory involves hands-on study and investigation of living invertebrates.

Biol 365. Vertebrate Biology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (3-2) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: 212, 212L. Evolution, biology, and classification of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Emphasis on a comparative analysis of the structure and function of organ systems. Laboratory exercises concentrate on morphology and identification of orders of vertebrates.

Biol 366. Plant Systematics. (2-4) Cr. 4. S.Prereq: 211. Introduction to plant phylogenetic systematics, plant classification, survey of flowering plant families, identification and field study of local plants.

Biol 371. Ecological Methods. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-2) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: 312; Stat 101 or 104. Quantitative techniques used in management of natural resources with emphasis on inventory and manipulation of habitat and animal populations. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 381. Environmental Systems I: Introduction to Environmental Systems. (Cross-listed with EnSci, Env S, Micro). (2-4) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: 12 credits of natural science including biology and chemistry. Introduction to the structure and function of natural environmental systems. Systems approach to the analysis of material and energy flows in natural environmental systems and the primary environmental factors controlling these systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 382. Environmental Systems II: Analysis of Environmental Systems. (Cross-listed with EnSci). (2-4) Cr. 4. S.Prereq: EnSci 381. Continuation of EnSci 381. Systems approach to the analysis of material and energy flows in natural environmental systems and the primary environmental factors controlling these systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 393. North American Field Trips in Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable.Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to North American locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
A. Pre-trip Seminar. Cr. 1. Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding trip.
B. Field trip. Cr. 1 to 3. Trip to North American location under supervision of faculty member. Report required.

Biol 394. International Field Trips in Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable.Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to international locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
A. Pre-trip Seminar. Cr. 1. Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding trip.
B. Field trip. Cr. 1 to 3. Trip to international location under supervision of faculty member. Report required. Offered on a satisfactory-fail grading basis only.

Biol 423. Developmental Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Biol 313. Principles of embryogenesis and animal development. Establishment of body axes, organ and limb development, and specification of cell fates. Emphasis on cell signaling and the control of gene expression within the context of a developing organism. Medically relevant subjects will be discussed, including stem cells, cancer biology, fertilization, and cloning.

Biol 423L. Developmental Biology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 423. Experiments and explorations illustrating fundamental principles of multicellular development.

Biol 428. Topics in Cell Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: 314. Selected topics on biological organization and function at the cellular level. Emphasis on biomembranes. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 434. General Comparative Endocrinology. Cr. 3-4. S.Prereq: 314. Dual-listed with EEOB 534. Chemical integration of vertebrate organisms. The structure, development, and evolution of the endocrine glands and the function and structure of their hormones. Laboratory techniques for studying hormonal phenomena. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 436. Neurobiology. (3-0) Cr. 3-4. F.Prereq: Biol 335 or Psych 310; physics recommended; permission of instructor to enroll in lab. (3-3) for 4 cr. Integration, coding, plasticity, and development in nervous systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 436L. Neurobiology Laboratory. Cr. 1. F.Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 436; permission of instructor to enroll in lab. Laboratory experimentation and demonstrations on integration, coding plasticity, and development in nervous systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 439. Environmental Physiology. Cr. 3-4. Alt. S., offered 2010.Prereq: 355 or A Ecl 311; physics recommended. Dual-listed with EEOB 539. Physiological adaptations to the environment with an emphasis on vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 444. Introduction to Bioinformatics. (Cross-listed with BCB, Com S, Cpr E, Gen). (4-0) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: Math 165 or Stat 401 or equivalent. Broad overview of bioinformatics with a significant problem-solving component, including hands-on practice using computational tools to solve a variety of biological problems. Topics include: database searching, sequence alignment, gene prediction, RNA and protein structure prediction, construction of phylogenetic trees, comparative and functional genomics. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 454. Plant Anatomy. (3-3) Cr. 4. F.Prereq: Biol 212L; 366 recommended. Characteristics of cell and tissue types in vascular plants. Anatomy of developing and mature stems, roots, and leaves, including secondary (woody) growth. Introduction to the special anatomy of flowers and seeds. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 455. Bryophyte and Lichen Biodiversity. (Dual-listed with 555). Cr. 3.Prereq: Biol 212, Biol 212L. (Dual-listed with EEOB) Introduction to the biology and ecology of mosses, liverworts, and lichens. Emphasis on identification and diversity of local representatives of these three groups of organisms. Required field trips and service-learning. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 456. Principles of Mycology. (Cross-listed with Micro). (2-3) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: 10 credits in biological sciences. Morphology, diversity and ecology of fungi; their relation to agriculture and industry and human health. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 457. Herpetology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: A Ecl 365 or Biol 351. Dual-listed with EEOB 557. Biology, ecology, and evolution of amphibians (salamanders, frogs, caecilians) and reptiles (lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles, crocodilians). Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of amphibians and reptiles in ecosystems, and conservation. Laboratory focus on survey methods, identification, relationships, distribution, habits, and habitats of amphibians and reptiles.

Biol 458. Ornithology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: A Ecl 365 or Biol 351. Dual-listed with EEOB 558. Biology, ecology, evolution, and taxonomy of birds. Emphasis on structure, physiology, behavior, communication, navigation, reproduction, and conservation. Laboratory exercises complement lecture topics, emphasize identification and distribution of Midwest birds, and include field trips.

Biol 459. Mammalogy. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: 351 or A Ecl 365. Dual-listed with EEOB 559. Biology, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of mammals in ecosystems, and conservation. Laboratory focus on identification, distribution, habits, and habitats of mammals.

Biol 462. Evolutionary Genetics. (Cross-listed with Gen). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Biol 315. The genetic basis of evolutionary processes in higher organisms. The role of genetic variation in adaptation, natural selection, adaptive processes, and the influence of random processes on evolutionary change. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 465. Morphometric Analysis. (3-2) Cr. 4. Alt. S., offered 2010.Prereq: Stat 401. Dual-listed with EEOB 565. A comprehensive overview of the theory and methods for the analysis of biological shape with emphasis on data acquisition, standardization, statistical analysis, and visualization of results. Methods for both landmark and outline data will be discussed. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 471. Introductory Conservation Biology. Cr. 3.Prereq: Biol 312. Examination of conservation issues from a population and community perspective. The role of genetics, demography, and environment in determining population viability, habitat fragmentation, reserve design, biodiversity assessment, and restoration ecology.

Biol 472. Community Ecology. (2-2) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Biol 312. The effect of interspecific interactions on the structure and dynamics of natural and managed communities; including concepts of guild structure and trophic web dynamics and their importance to the productivity, diversity, stability, and sustainability of communities. The implications of interspecifc interactions in the management of wild species will be emphasized with illustrative case histories of interactions between plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 474. Plant Ecology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Biol 312. Principles of plant population and community ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 476. Functional Ecology. (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered 2011.Prereq: Biol 312. Dual-listed with EEOB 576. The nature of adaptations to physical and biotic environments. Biophysical, biomechanical, and physiological bases of the structure, form, growth, distribution, and abundance of organisms.

Biol 480. Studies in Marine Biology. Cr. 1-8. Repeatable.Courses taken at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory and other marine biological stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number.

Biol 481. Summer Field Studies. Cr. 1-8. Repeatable.Courses taken at summer biological field stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number. Seewww.biology.iastate.edufor links to field stations located in different biomes: coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mountains.

Biol 482. Tropical Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable.Prereq: One year of college biology; knowledge of Spanish desirable but not required. Students registering for courses taught by the Organization for Tropical Studies will receive credit for this ISU course when requesting a transfer of credits.

Biol 484. Ecosystem Ecology. (Cross-listed with EnSci). (3-0) Cr. 3. S.Prereq: Combined 12 credits in biology and chemistry. Introduction of the study of ecosystems and the factors that influence their properties and dynamics. Conceptual foundations for ecosystem studies. Quantitative analyses of accumulations, transformations, and fluxes of nutrients, water, and energy within and among ecosystems.

Biol 486. Aquatic Ecology. (Cross-listed with EnSci, A Ecl). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: Biol 312 or EnSci 381 or EnSci 402 or NREM 301. Dual-listed with EEOB 586. Structure and function of aquatic ecosystems with application to fishery and pollution problems. Emphasis on lacustrine, riverine, and wetland ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 486L. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. (Cross-listed with EnSci, A Ecl). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.Prereq: Concurrent enrollment in 486. Dual-listed with EEOB 586L. Field trips and laboratory exercises to accompany 486. Hands-on experience with aquatic research and monitoring techniques and concepts. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 487. Microbial Ecology. (Cross-listed with EnSci, Micro). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: Six credits in biology and 6 credits in chemistry. Dual-listed with EEOB 587. Introduction to major functional groups of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms and their roles in natural systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 488. Identification of Aquatic Organisms. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S.On line taxonomic and identification exercises to accompany 486. Instruction and practice in the identification of algae, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthos. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 489. Population Ecology. (2-2) Cr. 3. F.Prereq: Biol 312, Stat 101 or 104, a course in calculus, or graduate standing. Dual-listed with EEOB 589. Concepts and theories of population dynamics with emphasis on models of growth, predation, competition, and regulation.

Biol 490. Independent Study. Cr. 1-6. Repeatable.Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. Research opportunities for undergraduate students in the biological sciences. No more than 9 credits in Biol 490 may be counted toward graduation and of those, only 6 credits may be applied to the major.
I. Iowa Lakeside Laboratory. (Same as Ia LL 490I) Cr. 1 to 4 each time taken. See Iowa Lakeside Laboratory.
R. Biological research. Cr. 1 to 6 each time taken. For students registering to work on an independent research project under the direction of a faculty member.

Biol 491. Laboratory Teaching Experience. Cr. 1-2. Repeatable.Prereq: Permission of supervising staff. For students registering to be undergraduate laboratory assistants. Satisfactory-fail only.

Biol 494. Biology Internship. Cr. 1-3. Repeatable.Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. Intended to provide credit for significant professional experiences in biological sciences. A written proposal is required prior to registration. Intended for Biology majors.

Biol 495. Undergraduate Seminar. Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. F.S.Prereq: 15 credits in biological science; permission of instructor. Content varies from year to year and may include detailed discussion of special topics in biology, current issues in biology, or careers in biology.

Biol 498. Cooperative Education. Cr. R. Repeatable. F.S.SS.Prereq: Junior classification and permission of the department cooperative education coordinator. Required of all cooperative education students. Students must register for this course prior to commencing each work period.