Iowa State University

Iowa State University

2007-2009 Courses and Programs

Iowa State University Catalog

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Biology (Biol)

200 |300 |400 | www.biology.iastate.edu

(Interdepartmental Undergraduate Program)

James T. Colbert, Program Coordinator

Iowa State University is a major center for research and education in the biological sciences. With over 200 faculty in the life sciences, students have the opportunity to learn from some of the nation's leaders in biological research and teaching and to participate in innovative, meaningful research projects that explore frontiers of biology. Few other universities have such a wealth of faculty expertise available to undergraduate students, making Iowa State's Biology Program the logical choice for those who want to participate in a thriving academic community.

The faculties of the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology and the Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology jointly offer the undergraduate Biology major. This high quality academic program has the flexibility to accommodate a range of career goals while taking advantage of the university's strengths in science and technology. A bachelor's degree in biology provides excellent preparation for graduate study in biological disciplines ranging from the molecular to the ecological levels, and for entrance into various professional schools, such as human medicine, physical therapy, or veterinary medicine. The major is well suited for those who plan to teach biology, who wish to enter government or industrial employment in health or environmental professions, or who prefer educational breadth as an end in itself. By working with our professional and faculty advisers, it is possible to design a unique program of study that will meet student needs and objectives.

Students with special interests and aptitudes should consider combining biology with a minor or a second major in another subject, such as chemistry, environmental studies, journalism, mathematics, music, statistics, or many other subjects offered by the university.

Undergraduate Study

Biology majors, and many other life science majors, start their studies in the biological sciences by taking a unified biology core curriculum consisting of six integrated courses, five with labs. The first year (Biol 211, 211L, 212, 212L) provides a broad introduction to the nature of life. During the first year, students also take Biol 110 and 111, which are half semester courses designed to introduce the student to the university and opportunities for careers in biology. The second year explores concepts in ecology in Biol 312 and the principles of genetics in Biol 313 and 313L. The third year includes courses in cell and molecular biology (Biol 314, 314L) and evolutionary biology (Biol 315). Biology majors must take additional credits beyond the core to add depth to their studies. Those who complete a minor in any subject are required to take 17 credits of their choice in advanced biological sciences courses. Those without a minor must take an additional 20 credits. Students may earn the B.S. degree in Biology from either the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences or from the College of Agriculture. Contact the Biology Program Office for details regarding differences in general education and course requirements which are specific to these colleges.

Biology majors should carefully consider their selection of upper-level courses to allow them to emphasize one or more of the sub-disciplines of Biology relevant to their post-baccalaureate objectives. The Biology Program has identified areas of special interest for many disciplines within Biology, with supporting 300-, 400-, and 500-level courses, enabling majors to gain substantial experience in these areas prior to graduation. Faculty advisers with experience in these subject areas work with students to provide advice about preparing for future training in a range of Biology-related professions. Consult the Biology Program advising staff for more information.

Most Biology courses numbered 300 or above can be used to satisfy the additional credit requirement. Also, any of the courses listed below that are taught by other life science departments will count in the major. Some courses taught in other departments can also be applied to the Biology major; advanced students should consider including 500 level courses in their programs. Check the Biology Program's World Wide Web site for a complete listing of accepatable courses.

Animal Ecology
A Ecl 321 Fish Biology
A Ecl 363 Natural History of Birds
A Ecl 442 Aquaculture

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
BBMB 311 Biochem Laboratory
BBMB 404 Biochemistry I
BBMB 405 Biochemistry II
BBMB 411 General Biochemical Research Techniques
BBMB 420 Physiological Chemistry
BBMB 451 Physical Biochemistry
BBMB 461 Biophysics

Biomedical Sciences
BMS 329 Physiology and Anatomy of Domestic Animals
BMS 415 Anatomy of Laboratory Animals
BMS 416 Avian Anatomy

Entomology
Ent 370 Insect Biology
Ent 374 Insects and Our Health
Ent 375 Plant Protection Using Natural Enemies
Ent 376 Fundamentals of Entomology & Pest Management

Genetics
Gen 340 Human Genetics
Gen 410 Transmission Genetics
Gen 411 Molecular Genetics

Microbiology
Micro 302, 302L Biology of Microorganisms
Micro 310 Fundamentals of Microbial Infection &
Immunity
Micro 402 Microbial Genetics
Micro 404 Microbial Physiology
Micro 408 Virology
Micro 420 Food Microbiology
Micro 475 Immunology
Micro 477 Bacterial-Plant Interactions

Biology majors must demonstrate competency in their understanding of the biological sciences. Thus, grades of C- or better in all biological science courses applied to the major are required. Furthermore, in order to graduate, a student must have a cumulative average in the major of at least 2.00.

Courses offered at locations other than the Ames Campus

In addition to biological science courses taught on campus, students may take courses at various remote locations and arrange to have the credits count toward the advanced courses required in the Biology major. Courses in field and aquatic biology are offered at the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory. Courses in marine biology can be taken at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory in Mississippi. Iowa State University is a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies, and students may take courses at the organization's field station in Costa Rica. Courses taught at field stations associated with other universities throughout the country may also be applied to the degree. Attending a summer field station adds an important component to an undergraduate program of study.

Courses Offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory at Milford, Iowa

Iowa Lakeside Lab is an Iowa Regents facility located at Lake Okoboji in northwest Iowa where various summer courses in field and acquatic biology are offered. Any of the following courses taken at the lab are directly applicable to the degree program in Biology. See the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory entry elsewhere in the catalog for a full description of the courses.

Ia LL 301I Iowa Natural History
Ia LL 302 Plant-animal Interactions
Ia LL 312I Ecology
Ia LL 326I Ornithology
Ia LL 364 Biology of Aquatic Plants
Ia LL 367 Plant Taxonomy
Ia LL 371I Intro to Insect Ecology
Ia LL 401I Statistical Methods for Field Biologists
Ia LL 403 Evolution
Ia LL 404I Behavioral Ecology
Ia LL 415 Freshwater Invertebrates
Ia LL 419I Vertebrate Ecology and Evolution
Ia LL 420I Amphibians and Reptiles
Ia LL 422I Prairie Ecology
Ia LL 484 Plant Ecology
Ia LL 490I Undergraduate Independent Study
Ia LL 494 Ecosystems of North America (field trip course)

Courses offered at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory is affiliated with the University of Southern Mississippi. Iowa State students may register for marine biology courses and transfer credit to their degree programs under the number Biol 480. Written permission of the Biology Program Director is required for this arrangement. Courses that are available each summer may be viewed at www.coms.usm.edu.

Courses offered at Summer Biological Field Stations

Courses taken at summer field stations may be tranferred to Iowa State University as credit in Biol 481. Such stations are found throughout the country and often offer courses that emphasize the adaptation of plants and animals to unique environments. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field stations in different biomes, e.g. marine/coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mts.

Courses offered by the Organization for Tropical Studies

Iowa State students may register for courses in tropical biology taught in Costa Rica by the Organization for Tropical Studies. Credit is transferred to Iowa State as Biology 482. For further information check www.ots.duke.edu or inquire in the Biology Program Office.

Undergraduate research. Students who have interest in biological research are encouraged to become involved in the research projects of faculty members on campus. Those doing so may receive credit for the experience in Biol 490. Internship experiences are often available at other universities and at industrial or government laboratories. Students participating in such projects may receive internship credit in Biol 494. Making the effort to find a suitable research mentor and engaging in research work can be one of the most valuable experiences of an undergraduate education.

International experience. Because major discoveries in science often result from global efforts, Biology majors are encouraged to include an international or study abroad component in their degree programs. This can be done by participating in international field trips originating from the ISU campus in Biol 394 or similar courses in other departments. Many students choose to study abroad, attending a university in another country for up to a year as an exchange student. Minors in Emerging Global Disease, International Studies, or a foreign language can add an international emphasis to a degree in biology. Biology advisers are eager to help plan and arrange such experiences with interested students.

Supporting course requirements. Understanding the modern biological sciences requires an understanding of the physical and mathematical sciences. Consequently, Biology majors are required to take 17 credits in chemistry, including: two semesters of general chemistry with labs, plus two more semesters of chemistry with labs, including at least one semester of organic chemistry. A minimum of 8 credits in general physics is also required.

The math requirement is competency based. After demonstrating competency in algebra and trigonometry, Biology majors must take: two semesters of calculus; or two semesters of statistics; or one semester of calculus and one semester of statistics chosen from a list of approved courses available in the Biology Program Office.

Students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, must fulfill the foreign language and general education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog for that college. Students in the College of Agriculture must meet the general education requirements for that college as listed elsewhere in the catalog.

Given the important role of writing in the modern sciences, Biology majors must demonstrate English competency by earning a minimum of C in both English 150 and 250 or equivalent composition courses and in one advanced writing course numbered English 302 through 316, or Jl MC 347.

The advantage of choosing a Biology major is the flexibility it allows in customizing a program of study to individual goals. That said, the faculty recognizes that many students studying biology have common goals. Consequently, the faculty has developed specific recommendations for students interested in the following goals:

Teacher Licensure. Biology majors seeking licensure to teach biology in secondary schools must meet requirements of the Teacher Education Program as well as those of the Biology Program. In addition they must apply formally for admission to the teacher education program. See Index, Teacher Education for a list of requirements.

Premedical and Prehealth Professions Studies. Biology majors who will go on to medical or health professional schools are urged to determine the entrance requirements for the institutions where they might study. A list of courses recommended for those who wish to pursue a pre-med curriculum is available in the Biology Program office.

Preveterinary Studies. Many students whose goal is to attend veterinary school choose Biology as their major. The requirements for entrance to the Iowa State Veterinary College are listed elsewhere in this bulletin and should be consulted as programs of study are planned.

Preparation for Graduate Studies. Students who are considering graduate school to further their education in a biological sciences should identify a faculty member who has similar interests. Faculty can mentor students as undergraduates providing a smooth transition to graduate school.

Minor
A minor in Biology is offered by the Biology Program. The minor requires 19 credits in Biology, and includes the completion of the specific courses listed below: Biol 211 and 211L, 212 and 212L, 313 and 313L, 315, and one of either 312 or 314 and 314L. Nine (9) credits of the required courses must only apply to the minor. For more information contact the Biology, Environmental Science, and Genetics Student Services Office in 103 Bessey Hall.

Graduate Study

Biology is an undergraduate major only. Persons interested in graduate study in the biological sciences should apply directly to one of the life science graduate programs at Iowa State University. Interdepartmental graduate offerings in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Genetics; Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; Neuroscience; Plant Physiology; Toxicology; Immunobiology; and Environmental Science are also available. (See Index.)

A non-thesis master's degree in Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies (biological sciences) has been established particularly for those who wish to have a more diversified program of advanced study than that generally permitted by specific departments and programs.

Courses open for nonmajor graduate credit: 330, 335, 371, 381, 428, 434, 436, 439, 454, 456, 462, 465, 472, 474, 483, 486, 486L, 487, 488.

Courses primarily for undergraduate students

Biol 101. Introductory Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.SS. Life considered at cellular, organism, and population levels. Function and diversity of the living world. Presentation of basic biological principles as well as topics and issues of current human interest. Non-majors only. Only one of Biol 101, 173 or 211 may count toward graduation.

Biol 110. Introduction to Biology. Cr. 0.5. F. Orientation to the scope of the biological sciences, and discussion of professional opportunities. Required of first year biology majors.

Biol 111. Opportunities in Biology. (1-0) Cr. 0.5. S. Introduction to biological science disciplines and professional opportunities through faculty presentations which examine a variety of current research topics. Satisfactory-fail only.

Biol 155. Human Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. A survey course of human biology, including principal structures and functions of the body systems and the diseases and disorders associated with them. Designed to meet general education requirements in natural science. Not recommended for those seeking a career in the allied health professions or for students majoring in life science.

Biol 165. Field Botany. (2-4) Cr. 2. F.SS. 8 weeks. Field and laboratory studies of plants in various local habitats. Includes trees, shrubs, flowering plants and other green plants, lichens and fungi. Not recommended for students with professional interest in plant science.

Biol 173. Environmental Biology. (Cross-listed with Env S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. An introduction to the structure and function of natural systems at scales from the individual to the biosphere and the complex interactions between humans and their environment. Discussions of human population growth, biodiversity, sustainability, resource use, and pollution. Non-majors only. Only one of Biol 101, 173 or 211 may count toward graduation.

Biol 204. Biodiversity. (Cross-listed with Env S). (4-0) Cr. 2. S. Prereq: One course in life sciences. Survey of the major groups of organisms and biological systems. Definition, measurements, and patterns of distribution of organisms. Sources of information about biodiversity. Not intended for major credit in the biological sciences. Half semester course.

Biol 211. Principles of Biology I. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: High school biology and chemistry or credit or enrollment in Chem 163 or 177. Introduction to the nature of life, including the cellular basis of life; the nature of heredity; evolution; diversity of microbial, plant, and animal life; and principles of ecology. Intended for life science majors. Only one of Biol 101, 173 or 211 may count toward graduation.

Biol 211L. Principles of Biology Laboratory I. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 211. Laboratory to accompany 211.

Biol 212. Principles of Biology II. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 211. Introduction to the nature of life, including the cellular basis of life; energy relationships; the nature of heredity; evolution; form and function of microbial, plant, and animal life.

Biol 212L. Principles of Biology Laboratory II. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: credit or enrollment in 212. Laboratory to accompany 212.

Biol 255. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or Biol 101. An introduction to human anatomy, beginning with cells and tissues, surveying all body systems, relating form to function. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider Biol 351 for their anatomy background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 255L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 255. Investigation of human anatomy using models and dissections of preserved organs and model mammals. Pre-Medical students should consider 351 for their anatomy background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 256. Fundamentals of Human Physiology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: High School Biology and Chemistry, or Biol 101, or 255 (recommended). An introduction to human physiology, studying the function of all body systems. Systems covered include: integumentary, bones and joints, muscles, nervous, sensory, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic and immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their physiology background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 256L. Fundamentals of Human Physiology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 256. Student-conducted experiments investigating concepts of human physiology with computer data acquisition and analysis. Interpretation of experimental results and preparation of lab reports. Pre-Medical students should consider 335 for their anatomy and physiology background. Not intended for major credit in biology.

Biol 258. Human Reproduction. (Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: Biol 101, or 155, or 211. Anatomy and physiology of human reproductive systems, including fertility, pregnancy, and delivery.

Biol 305. Embryology. (2-0) Cr. 2. S. Prereq: 212. Basic principles and processes of development. Course will cover classical as well as current aspects of developmental biology. Emphasis will be on vertebrate model systems. Not acceptable for credit in the major for Biology or Genetics major.

Biol 305L. Embryology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 305. Selected experiments demonstrating basic concepts in development. Mixture of live embryo experiments and vertebrate developmental anatomy.

Biol 307. Women in Science and Engineering. (Cross-listed with W S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: a 200 level course in science, engineering or women's studies; Engl 250. The interrelationships of women and science and engineering examined from historical, sociological, philosophical, and biological perspectives. Factors contributing to underrepresentation; feminist critiques of science; examination of successful strategies.

Biol 312. Ecology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl, EnSci). (3-3) Cr. 4. F.SS. Prereq: 211L and 212L. Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology dealing with organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Laboratory and field exercises examine ecological principles and methods as well as illustrate habitats.

Biol 313. Principles of Genetics. (Cross-listed with Gen). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 211 and 212. Introduction to the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of plants, animals, and bacteria. Recombination, structure and replication of DNA, gene expression, cloning, quantitative and population genetics. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Biol 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.

Biol 313L. Genetics Laboratory. (Cross-listed with Gen). (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 313. Laboratory to accompany 313. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: Biol 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.

Biol 314. Principles of Molecular Cell Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: Biol 313. Integration of elementary principles of metabolism, bioenergetics, cell structure and function to develop a molecular view of how the cell works.

Biol 314L. Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 314. Laboratory to accompany Biology 314.

Biol 315. Biological Evolution. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 313. The mechanisms of evolution. Topics in microevolution: population genetics, natural selection, genetic variation, and adaptation. Macroevolution: speciation, extinction, phylogeny, and major evolutionary patterns.

Biol 330. Principles of Plant Physiology.. (3-3) Cr. 4-5. Prereq: Biol 313 or Gen 320; Biol 314 or BBMB 301; Chem 231 or 332; Phys 106 or 111. An overview of classical and current concepts, principles and approaches regarding the basic mechanisms of plant function underlying growth, development and survival of plants. Topics covered include environmental and developmental signals, plant hormone action, signal transduction, mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism and photosynthesis. 330B will include independent group research projects. Nonmajor graduate credit.
A: (3-3) Cr. 4.
B: (3-6) Cr. 5 Includes independent group research project.

Biol 335. Principles of Animal Physiology. (3-4) Cr. 5. F.S. Prereq: Biol 314. Introduction to systemic functions with emphasis on mammals. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 351. Comparative Chordate Anatomy. (3-4) Cr. 5. S. Prereq: 212, junior classification. The evolution of chordates as reflected in the anatomy of extinct and living forms. Lecture topics include the history and diversity of chordates; comparisons of anatomic structures among major groups, the adaptive significance of anatomic structures. Laboratory involves dissection of representative species.

Biol 352. Vertebrate Histology. (3-3) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: 212. Microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs, with an introduction to histological techniques.

Biol 353. Introductory Parasitology. (Cross-listed with Micro). (3-3) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Biol 212. Biology and host-parasite relationships of major groups of animal parasites, and techniques of diagnosing and studying parasites.

Biol 354. Animal Behavior. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: 212. Ethological and sociobiological approaches to animal behavior. Genetic and developmental aspects of behavior, biological rhythms, orientation (including navigation, migration), communication, and social behavior (mating, aggression, parental care).

Biol 354L. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in Biol 354. Laboratory techniques for observation, description and analysis of animal activities; independent projects.

Biol 355. Plants and People. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Credit in 211 and 211L. Uses of plants and fungi by humans and the importance of plants in the past, present and future. Discussion of fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, wood, medicines, and drugs, in the context of their agricultural, cultural, and economic roles in modern societies. Emphasis on origins and worldwide diversity of culturally important plants, their characteristics, and uses.

Biol 356. Dendrology. (Cross-listed with For). (2-4) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Biol 211. Identification and ecology of North American woody plant species. Importance of woody plants in timber production and wildlife habitat. Natural disturbances, human impacts, management and restoration concerns for major North American forest regions will be addressed.

Biol 364. Invertebrate Biology. Cr. 3-4. F. Prereq: Biol 212. Emphasis on diversity, development, physiology and behavior of invertebrate organisms- the "spineless wonders" of the world. Laboratory involves hands-on study and investigation of living invertebrates.

Biol 365. Vertebrate Biology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (3-2) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: 212, 212L. Evolution, biology, and classification of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Emphasis on a comparative analysis of the structure and function of organ systems. Laboratory exercises concentrate on morphology and identification of orders of vertebrates.

Biol 366. Plant Systematics. (2-4) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: 211. Introduction to plant phylogenetic systematics, plant classification, survey of flowering plant families, identification and field study of local plants.

Biol 371. Ecological Methods. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-2) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 312; Stat 101 or 104. Quantitative techniques used in management of natural resources with emphasis on inventory and manipulation of habitat and animal populations. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 381. Environmental Systems. (Dual-listed with 581). (Cross-listed with Env S, EnSci, Micro). (2-4) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Soc 130, 134 or 3 credits of Env S. (Dual-listed with EEOB 581) Dynamics of natural environmental systems. Systems approach to the analysis of material and energy flows and to understanding major physical, chemical, and biological processes in environmental systems. Laboratory emphasizes mass balance analysis and environmental simulation modeling. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 393. North American Field Trips in Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable. Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to North American locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
A. Pre-trip Seminar. Cr. 1. Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding trip.
B. Field trip. Cr. 1 to 3. Trip to North American location under supervision of faculty member. Report required.

Biol 394. International Field Trips in Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable. Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to international locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in the Biology Program Office, 103 Bessey Hall, for trip schedule.
A. Pre-trip Seminar. Cr. 1. Discussion of relevant biological and cultural topics during semester preceding trip.
B. Field trip. Cr. 1 to 3. Trip to international location under supervision of faculty member. Report required. Offered on a satisfactory-fail grading basis only.

Biol 423. Developmental Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 313. Principles of embryogenesis and animal development. Establishment of body axes, organ and limb development, and specification of cell fates. Emphasis on cell signaling and the control of gene expression within the context of a developing organism. Medically relevant subjects will be discussed, including stem cells, cancer biology, fertilization, and cloning.

Biol 423L. Developmental Biology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 423. Experiments and explorations illustrating fundamental principles of multicellular development.

Biol 428. Topics in Cell Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 314. Selected topics on biological organization and function at the cellular level. Emphasis on biomembranes. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 434. General Comparative Endocrinology. Cr. 3-4. S. Prereq: 314. Dual-listed with EEOB 534. Chemical integration of vertebrate organisms. The structure, development, and evolution of the endocrine glands and the function and structure of their hormones. Laboratory techniques for studying hormonal phenomena. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 436. Neurobiology. (3-0) Cr. 3-4. F. Prereq: Biol 335 or Psych 310; physics recommended; permission of instructor to enroll in lab. (3-3) for 4 cr. Integration, coding, plasticity, and development in nervous systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 439. Environmental Physiology. Cr. 3-4. Alt. S., offered 2008. Prereq: 355 or A Ecl 311; physics recommended. Dual-listed with EEOB 539. Physiological adaptations to the environment with an emphasis on vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 444. Introduction to Bioinformatics. (Cross-listed with BCB, Com S, Cpr E, Gen). (4-0) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Math 165 or Stat 401 or equivalent. Broad overview of bioinformatics with a significant problem-solving component, including hands-on practice using computational tools to solve a variety of biological problems. Topics include: database searching, sequence alignment, gene prediction, RNA and protein structure prediction, construction of phylogenetic trees, comparative and functional genomics. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 454. Plant Anatomy. (3-3) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Biol 212L; 366 recommended. Characteristics of cell and tissue types in vascular plants. Anatomy of developing and mature stems, roots, and leaves, including secondary (woody) growth. Introduction to the special anatomy of flowers and seeds. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 456. Principles of Mycology. (Cross-listed with Micro). (2-3) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: 10 credits in biological sciences. Morphology, diversity and ecology of fungi; their relation to agriculture and industry and human health. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 457. Herpetology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: A Ecl 365 or Biol 351. Dual-listed with EEOB 557. Biology, ecology, and evolution of amphibians (salamanders, frogs, caecilians) and reptiles (lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles, crocodilians). Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of amphibians and reptiles in ecosystems, and conservation. Laboratory focus on survey methods, identification, relationships, distribution, habits, and habitats of amphibians and reptiles.

Biol 458. Ornithology. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: A Ecl 365 or Biol 351. Dual-listed with EEOB 558. Biology, ecology, evolution, and taxonomy of birds. Emphasis on structure, physiology, behavior, communication, navigation, reproduction, and conservation. Laboratory exercises complement lecture topics, emphasize identification and distribution of Midwest birds, and include field trips.

Biol 459. Mammalogy. (Cross-listed with A Ecl). (2-3) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 351. Dual-listed with EEOB 559. Biology, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Emphasis on structure, physiological adaptation to different environments, behavior, reproduction, roles of mammals in ecosystems, and conservation. Laboratory focus on identification, distribution, habits, and habitats of mammals.

Biol 462. Evolutionary Genetics. (Cross-listed with Gen). (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 315. Dual-listed with EEOB 562. The genetic basis of evolutionary processes in higher organisms. The role of genetic variation in adaptation, natural selection, adaptive processes, and the influence of random processes on evolutionary change. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 465. Morphometric Analysis. (3-2) Cr. 4. Alt. S., offered 2008. Prereq: Stat 401. Dual-listed with EEOB 565. A comprehensive overview of the theory and methods for the analysis of biological shape with emphasis on data acquisition, standardization, statistical analysis, and visualization of results. Methods for both landmark and outline data will be discussed. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 472. Community Ecology. (2-2) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 312. The effect of interspecific interactions on the structure and dynamics of natural and managed communities; including concepts of guild structure and trophic web dynamics and their importance to the productivity, diversity, stability, and sustainability of communities. The implications of interspecifc interactions in the management of wild species will be emphasized with illustrative case histories of interactions between plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 474. Plant Ecology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 312. Principles of plant population and community ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 476. Functional Ecology. (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. S., offered 2009. Prereq: Biol 312. Dual-listed with EEOB 576. The nature of adaptations to physical and biotic environments. Biophysical, biomechanical, and physiological bases of the structure, form, growth, distribution, and abundance of organisms.

Biol 480. Studies in Marine Biology. Cr. 1-8. Repeatable. Courses taken at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory and other marine biological stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number.

Biol 481. Summer Field Studies. Cr. 1-8. Repeatable. Courses taken at summer biological field stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field stations located in different biomes: coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mountains.

Biol 482. Tropical Biology. Cr. 1-4. Repeatable. Prereq: One year of college biology; knowledge of Spanish desirable but not required. Students registering for courses taught by the Organization for Tropical Studies will receive credit for this ISU course when requesting a transfer of credits.

Biol 483. Environmental Biogeochemistry. (Cross-listed with EnSci, Geol). (3-2) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: EnSci 381 and 402 or 402I. Dual-listed with EEOB 583. Biological, chemical, and physical phenomena controlling material, energy, and elemental fluxes in the environment. Interactions of life with and effects on envioronmental systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 486. Aquatic Ecology. (Cross-listed with EnSci, A Ecl). (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: Biol 312 or EnSci 381 or EnSci 402 or NREM 301. Dual-listed with EEOB 586. Structure and function of aquatic ecosystems with application to fishery and pollution problems. Emphasis on lacustrine, riverine, and wetland ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 486L. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. (Cross-listed with EnSci, A Ecl). (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Concurrent enrollment in 486. Dual-listed with EEOB 586L. Field trips and laboratory exercises to accompany 486. Hands-on experience with aquatic research and monitoring techniques and concepts. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 487. Aquatic and Wetland Microbial Ecology. (Cross-listed with EnSci, Micro). (3-0) Cr. 3. Prereq: Six credits in biology and 6 credits in chemistry. Dual-listed with EEOB 587. Introduction to major functional groups and their roles in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. Emphasis on energy flow and nutrient dynamics. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 488. Identification of Aquatic Organisms. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. On line taxonomic and identification exercises to accompany 486. Instruction and practice in the identification of algae, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthos. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Biol 489. Population Ecology. (2-2) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: Biol 312, Stat 101 or 104, a course in calculus, or graduate standing. Dual-listed with EEOB 589. Concepts and theories of population dynamics with emphasis on models of growth, predation, competition, and regulation.

Biol 490. Independent Study. Cr. 1-6. Repeatable. Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. Research opportunities for undergraduate students in the biological sciences. No more than 9 credits in Biol 490 may be counted toward graduation and of those, only 6 credits may be applied to the major.
I. Iowa Lakeside Laboratory. (Same as Ia LL 490I) Cr. 1 to 4 each time taken. See Iowa Lakeside Laboratory.
R. Biological research. Cr. 1 to 6 each time taken. For students registering to work on an independent research project under the direction of a faculty member.

Biol 491. Laboratory Teaching Experience. Cr. 1-2. Repeatable. Prereq: Permission of supervising staff. For students registering to be undergraduate laboratory assistants. Satisfactory-fail only.

Biol 494. Biology Internship. Cr. 1-3. Repeatable. Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. Intended to provide credit for significant professional experiences in biological sciences. A written proposal is required prior to registration. Intended for Biology majors.

Biol 495. Undergraduate Seminar. Cr. 1. Repeatable. F.S. Prereq: 15 credits in biological science; permission of instructor. Content varies from year to year and may include detailed discussion of special topics in biology, current issues in biology, or careers in biology.

Biol 498. Cooperative Education. Cr. R. Repeatable. F.S.SS. Prereq: Junior classification and permission of the department cooperative education coordinator. Required of all cooperative education students. Students must register for this course prior to commencing each work period.