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Iowa State University is a major center for research and education in the biological sciences. With over 200 faculty in the life sciences, students have the opportunity to learn from some of the nation's leaders in biological research and teaching and to participate in innovative, meaningful research projects that explore frontiers of biology. Few other universities have such a wealth of faculty expertise available to undergraduate students, making Iowa State's Biology Program the logical choice for those who want to participate in a thriving academic community.
The faculties of the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology and the Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology jointly offer the undergraduate Biology major. This high quality academic program has the flexibility to accommodate a range of career goals while taking advantage of the university's strengths in science and technology. A bachelor's degree in biology provides excellent preparation for graduate study in biological disciplines ranging from the molecular to the ecological levels, and for entrance into various professional schools, such as human medicine, physical therapy, or veterinary medicine. The major is well suited for those who plan to teach biology, who wish to enter government or industrial employment in health or environmental professions, or who prefer educational breadth as an end in itself. By working with our professional and faculty advisers, it is possible to design a unique program of study that will meet student needs and objectives.
Students with special interests and aptitudes should consider combining biology with a minor or a second major in another subject, such as chemistry, environmental studies, journalism, mathematics, music, statistics, or many other subjects offered by the university.
Biology majors, and many other life science majors, start their studies in the biological sciences by taking a unified biology core curriculum consisting of six integrated courses, five with labs. The first year (Biol 211, 211L, 212, 212L) provides a broad introduction to the nature of life. During the first year, students also take Biol 110 and 111, which are half semester courses designed to introduce the student to the university and opportunities for careers in biology. The second year explores concepts in ecology in Biol 312 and the principles of genetics in Biol 313 and 313L. The third year includes courses in cell and molecular biology (Biol 314, 314L) and evolutionary biology (Biol 315). Biology majors must take additional credits beyond the core to add depth to their studies. Those who complete a minor in any subject are required to take 17 credits of their choice in advanced biological sciences courses. Those without a minor must take an additional 20 credits. Students may earn the B.S. degree in Biology from either the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences or from the College of Agriculture. Contact the Biology Program Office for details regarding differences in general education and course requirements which are specific to these colleges.
Most Biology courses numbered 300 or above can be used to satisfy the additional credit requirement. Also, any of the courses listed below that are taught by other life science departments will count in the major. Some courses taught in other departments can also be applied to the Biology major; advanced students should consider including 500 level courses in their programs. Check the Biology Program's World Wide Web site for a complete listing of accepatable courses.
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology:
Biology majors must demonstrate competency in their understanding of the biological sciences. Thus, grades of C- or better in all biological science courses applied to the major are required. Furthermore, in order to graduate, a student must have a cumulative average in the major of at least 2.00.
Courses offered at locations other than the Ames Campus
In addition to biological science courses taught on campus, students may take courses at various remote locations and arrange to have the credits count toward the advanced courses required in the Biology major. Courses in field and aquatic biology are offered at the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory. Courses in marine biology can be taken at the Gulf Coast Reserach Laborotory in Mississippi. Iowa State University is a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies, and students may take courses at the organization's field station in Costa Rica. Courses taught at field stations associated with other universities throughout the country may also be applied to the degree. Attending a summer field station adds an important component to an undergraduate program of study.
Courses Offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory at Milford, Iowa
Iowa Lakeside Lab is an Iowa Regents facility located at Lake Okoboji in northwest Iowa where various summer courses in field and acquatic biology are offered. Any of the following courses taken at the lab are directly applicable to the degree program in Biology. See the Iowa Lakeside Laboratory entry elsewhere in the catalog for a full description of the courses.
Ia LL 301I Iowa Natural History
Courses offered at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory is affiliated with the University of Southern Mississippi. Iowa State students may register for marine biology courses and transfer credit to their degree programs under the number Biol 480. Written permission of the Biology Program Director is required for this arrangement. Courses that are available each summer may be viewed at www.coms.usm.edu.
Courses offered at Summer Biological Field Stations
Courses taken at summer field stations may be tranferred to Iowa State University as credit in Biol 481. Such stations are found throughout the country and often offer courses that emphasize the adaptation of plants and animals to unique environments. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field stations in different biomes, e.g. marine/coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mts.
Courses offered by the Organization for Tropical Studies
Iowa State students may register for courses in tropical biology taught in Costa Rica by the Organization for Tropical Studies. Credit is transferred to Iowa State as Biology 482. For further information check www.ots.duke.edu or inquire in the Biology Program Office.
Undergraduate research. Students who have interest in biological research are encouraged to become involved in the research projects of faculty members on campus. Those doing so may receive credit for the experience in Biol 490. Internship experiences are often available at other universities and at industrial or government laboratories. Students participating in such projects may receive internship credit in Biol 494. Making the effort to find a suitable research mentor and engaging in research work can be one of the most valuable experiences of an undergraduate education.
International experience. Because major discoveries in science often result from global efforts, Biology majors are encouraged to include an international or study abroad component in their degree programs. This can be done by participating in international field trips originating from the ISU campus in Biol 394 or similar courses in other departments. Many students choose to study abroad, attending a university in another country for up to a year as an exchange student. Minors in Emerging Global Disease, International Studies, or a foreign language can add an international emphasis to a degree in biology. Biology advisers are eager to help plan and arrange such experiences with interested students.
Supporting course requirements. Understanding the modern biological sciences requires an understanding of the physical and mathematical sciences. Consequently, Biology majors are required to take 17 credits in chemistry, including: two semesters of general chemistry with labs, plus two more semesters of chemistry with labs, including at least one semester of organic chemistry. A minimum of 8 credits in general physics is also required.
The math requirement is competency based. After demonstrating competency in algebra and trigonometry, students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences must take two semesters of calculus or two semesters of statistics chosen from a list of approved courses available in the Biology Program Office. Students in the College of Agriculture must take both a math and a statistics course plus a second course in either area, for a total of three courses that include either a year of calculus or statistics.
Students in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, must fulfill the foreign language and general education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog for that college. Students in the College of Agriculture must meet the general education requirements for that college as listed elsewhere in the catalog.
Given the important role of writing in the modern sciences, Biology majors must demonstrate English competency by earning a minimum of C in both English 104 and 105 or equivalent composition courses and in one advanced writing course numbered English 302 through 316, or Jl MC 347.
Customizing a degree
The advantage of choosing a Biology major is the flexibility it allows in customizing a program of study to individual goals. That said, the faculty recognizes that many students studying biology have common goals. Consequently, the faculty has developed specific recommendations for students interested in the following goals:
Teacher Licensure. Biology majors seeking licensure to teach biology in secondary schools must meet requirements of the Teacher Education Program as well as those of the Biology Program. In addition they must apply formally for admission to the teacher education program. See Index, Teacher Education for a list of requirements.
Premedical and Prehealth Professions Studies. Biology majors who will go on to medical or health professional schools are urged to determine the entrance requirements for the institutions where they might study. The requirements for the Biology major meet or exceed the entrance requirements for most institutions. A list of courses recommended for those who wish to pursue a pre-med curriculum is available in the Biology Program office.
Preveterinary Studies. Many students whose goal is to attend veterinary school choose Biology as their major. The requirements for entrance to the Iowa State Veterinary College are listed elsewhere in this bulletin and should be consulted as programs of study are planned.
Preparation for Graduate Studies. Students who are considering graduate school to further their education in a biological sciences should identify a faculty member who has similar interests. Faculty can mentor students as undergraduates providing a smooth transition to graduate school.
A minor in Biology is offered in both the College of Agriculture and College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The minor requires 19 credits in Biology, and includes the completion of the specific courses listed below: Biol 211 and 211L, 212 and 212L, 313 and 313L, 315, and one of either 312 or 314 and 314L. Nine (9) credits of the required courses must only apply to the minor. For more information contact the Biology, Environmental Science, and Genetics Student Services Office in 103 Bessey Hall.
Biology is an undergraduate major only. Persons interested in graduate study in the biological sciences should apply directly to one of the life science graduate programs at Iowa State University. Interdepartmental graduate offerings in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Genetics; Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; Neuroscience; Plant Physiology; Toxicology; Immunobiology; and Environmental Science are also available. (See Index.)
A non-thesis master's degree in Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies (biological sciences) has been established particularly for those who wish to have a more diversified program of advanced study than that generally permitted by specific departments and programs.
Courses open for nonmajor graduate credit: 330, 335, 371, 381, 428, 434, 436, 439, 454, 456, 462, 465, 472, 474, 483, 486, 486L, 487, 488.
Courses primarily for undergraduate students
Biol 110. Introduction to Biology. (1-0) Cr. R. F. Orientation to the scope of the biological sciences, and discussion of professional opportunities. Required of first year biology majors. Offered on a satisfactory-fail grading basis only.
Biol 111. Opportunities in Biology. (1-0) Cr. .5. S. Introduction to biological science disciplines and professional opportunities through faculty presentations which examine a variety of current research topics. Offered on a satisfactory-fail grading basis only.
Biol 155. Introduction to the Human Body. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. A survey course of the human body including principal structures and functions of the body systems and the diseases and disorders associated with them. Designed to meet general education requirements in natural science. Not recommended for those seeking a career in the allied health professions or for students majoring in life science.
Biol 173. Environmental Biology. (Same as Env S 173.) (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. An introduction to the structure and function of natural systems at scales from the individual to the biosphere and the complex interactions between humans and their environment. Discussions of human population growth, biodiversity, sustainability, resource use, and pollution. Non-majors only.
Biol 211L. Principles of Biology Laboratory I. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 211. Laboratory to accompany 211.
Biol 212. Principles of Biology II. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 211. Introduction to the nature of life, including the cellular basis of life; energy relationships; the nature of heredity; evolution; form and function of microbial, plant, and animal life.
Biol 212L. Principles of Biology Laboratory II. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: credit or enrollment in 212. Laboratory to accompany 212.
Biol 255. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology I. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: H.S. Biology and chemistry or Biol 101. Fundamentals of the human body systems including anatomy and physiology and related diseases and disorders. Part 1 of a two semester sequence. Designed for students preparing for careers in health professions, dietetics and athletic training. Not recommended for dental or medical school. Part 1 covers the nervous, muscular, skeletal, endocrine and integumentary systems. Part 2 (offered spring semesters) covers the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Premed students and those majoring in biological sciences should consider 351 and 335 for their anatomy and physiology background.
Biol 255L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology - Laboratory I. (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 255. A "hands-on" learning experience of human anatomy and physiology through the use of models, specimens, videos, student conducted experiments and computerized demonstrations. Part 1 covers the nervous, muscular, skeletal, endocrine and integumentary systems.
Biol 256. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology II. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: H.S. Biology and chemistry or Biol 101. Fundamentals of the human body systems including anatomy and physiology and related diseases and disorders. Part 2 of a two semester sequence. Designed for students preparing for careers in the health professions, dietetics, and athletic training. Not recommended for dental or medical school. Part 2 covers the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Part 1 (offered fall semesters) covers the nervous, muscular, skeletal, endocrine and integumentary systems. Premed students and those majoring in biological sciences should consider 351 and 335 for their anatomy and physiology background.
Biol 256L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology- Laboratory II. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 256. A "hands-on" learning experience of human anatomy and physiology through the use of models, specimens, videos, student conducted experiements and computerized demonstrations. Part 2 covers the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.
Biol 258. Human Reproduction. (Same as W S 258.) (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. F., offered 2006. Prereq: 155 or Biol 110 or 211. Anatomy and physiology of human reproductive systems, including fertility, pregnancy, and delivery.
Biol 265. Field Botany. (2-4) Cr. 2. F.SS. 8 weeks. Field and laboratory studies of plants in various local habitats. Includes trees, shrubs, flowering plants and other green plants, lichens and fungi. Not recommended for students with professional interest in plant science.
Biol 305. Embryology. (2-0) Cr. 2. S. Prereq: 212. Basic principles and processes of development. Course will cover classical as well as current aspects of developmental biology. Emphasis will be on vertebrate model systems. Not acceptable for credit in the major for Biology or Genetics major.
Biol 305L. Embryology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 305. Selected experiments demonstrating basic concepts in development. Mixture of live embryo experiments and vertebrate developmental anatomy.
Biol 307. Women in Science and Engineering. (Same as W S 307.) (3-0) Cr. 3. Alt. F., offered 2005. Prereq: a 200 level course in science, engineering or women's studies; Engl 105. The interrelationships of women and science and engineering examined from historical, sociological, philosophical, and biological perspectives. Factors contributing to underrepresentation; feminist critiques of science; examination of successful strategies.
Biol 308. Plants in the Classroom. (2-3) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: Sophomore classification. Introduction to the structure, function, and ecology of plants. Students will develop lesson plans focusing on plants and have opportunities to prepare presentations on selected aspects of plant biology. Intended for Elementary Education Majors and Secondary Education Majors and Secondary Education Students.
Biol 312. Ecology. (Same as A Ecl 312, EnSci 312.) (2-3) Cr. 3. F.SS. Prereq: 211L and 212L. Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology dealing with organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Laboratory and field exercises examine ecological principles and methods as well as illustrate habitats.
Biol 313. Principles of Genetics. (Same as Gen 313.) (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 211L and 212 L, credit or enrollment in organic chemistry. Introduction to the principles of transmission and molecular genetics of plants, animals, and bacteria. Recombination, structure and replication of DNA, gene expression, cloning, quantitative and population genetics. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.
Biol 313L. Genetics Laboratory. (Same as Gen 313L.) (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 313. Laboratory to accompany 313. Students may receive graduation credit for no more than one of the following: 313 and 313L, Gen 260, Gen 313, Gen 320, and Agron 320.
Biol 314. Principles of Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 313. Integration of elementary principles of metabolism, bioenergetics, cell structure and function to develop a molecular view of how the cell works.
Biol 314L. Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 314. Laboratory to accompany 314. BBMB 311 and Biol 314L cannot both be taken for credit.
Biol 315. Biological Evolution. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereq: 313. The mechanisms of evolution. Topics in microevolution: population genetics, natural selection, genetic variation, and adaptation. Macroevolution: speciation, extinction, phylogeny, and major evolutionary patterns.
Biol 330. Plant Physiology. A: (3-3) Cr. 4. B: (3-6) Cr. 5. Prereq: Biol 313 or Gen 320; Biol 314 or BBMB 301; Chem 231 or 332; Phys 106 or 111. Application of physical and biological principles involved to the understanding of plant processes involved in assimilation, metabolism, and regulation of growth and development. 330B will include independent group research projects. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 335. Principles of Animal Physiology. (3-4) Cr. 5. F.S. Prereq: Biol 314. Introduction to systemic functions with emphasis on mammals. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 351. Comparative Chordate Anatomy. (3-4) Cr. 5. S. Prereq: 212, junior classification. The evolution of chordates as reflected in the anatomy of extinct and living forms. Lecture topics include the history and diversity of chordates; comparisons of anatomic structures among major groups, the adaptive significance of anatomic structures. Laboratory involves dissection of representative species.
Biol 352. Vertebrate Histology. (3-3) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: 212. Microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs, with an introduction to histological techniques.
Biol 353. Introductory Parasitology. (Same as Micro 353.) (3-3) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: 212. Biology and host-parasite relationships of major groups of animal parasites, and techniques of diagnosing and studying parasites.
Biol 354. Animal Behavior. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: 212. Ethological and sociobiological approaches to animal behavior. Genetic and developmental aspects of behavior, biological rhythms, orientation (including navigation, migration), communication, and social behavior (mating, aggression, parental care).
Biol 354L. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in Biol 354. Laboratory techniques for observation, description and analysis of animal activities; independent projects.
Biol 355. Plants and People. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Credit in 211. Uses of plants and fungi by humans and the importance of plants in the past, present and future. Discussion of fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, wood, medicines, and drugs, in the context of their agricultural, cultural, and economic roles in modern societies. Emphasis on origins and worldwide diversity of culturally important plants, their characteristics, and uses.
Biol 356. Dendrology. (Same as For 356.) See Natural Resource Ecology and Management-Forestry.
Biol 364. Invertebrate Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3 or (3-2) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Biol 212. Emphasis on diversity, development, physiology and behavior of invertebrate organisms- the "spineless wonders" of the world. Laboratory involves hands-on study and investigation of living invertebrates.
Biol 365. Vertebrate Biology. (Same as A Ecl 365.) (3-2) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: 212, 212L. Evolution, biology, and classification of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Emphasis on a comparative analysis of the structure and function of organ systems. Laboratory exercises concentrate on morphology and identification of orders of vertebrates.
Biol 366. Plant Systematics. (2-4) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: 211. Introduction to plant phylogenetic systematics, plant classification, survey of flowering plant families, identification and field study of local plants.
Biol 371. Ecological Methods. (Same as A Ecl 371.) (2-2) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 312; Stat 101 or 104. Quantitative techniques used in management of natural resources with emphasis on inventory and manipulation of habitat and animal populations. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 381. Environmental Systems. (Dual-listed with EEOB 581, Same as Env S 381, EnSci 381, Micro 381.) (2-4) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: 212 or Micro 201, Chem 164, 167 or 178, Math 160, 165 or 181. Introduction to the dynamics of metabolic and biogeochemical processes in environmental systems, emphasizing microbial processes. Environmental factors controlling major autotrophic and heterotropic processes of microbes and higher organisms. Laboratory emphasizes mass balance analysis and environmental simulation modeling. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 393. North American Field Trips in Biology.
Cr. 1 to 4 each time taken. Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to North American locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in 201 Bessey Hall for trip schedule.
Biol 394. International Field Trips in Biology.
Cr. 1 to 4 each time taken. Prereq: Two courses in the biological sciences and by approval of application. Extended field trips, usually during break periods, to international locations of interest to biologists. Inquire in 201 Bessey Hall for trip schedule.
Biol 423L. Developmental Biology Laboratory. (0-3) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 423. Experiments and explorations illustrating fundamental principles of multicellular development.
Biol 428. Cell Biology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 314. Biological organization and function at the cellular level. Emphasis on biomembranes. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 434. General Comparative Endocrinology. (Dual-listed with EEOB 534.) (3-0) Cr. 3 or (3-3) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: 314. Chemical integration of vertebrate organisms. The structure, development, and evolution of the endocrine glands and the function and structure of their hormones. Laboratory techniques for studying hormonal phenomena. Laboratory experiments required animal surgery and involvement outside of scheduled class time. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 436. Neurobiology. (3-0) Cr. 3 or (3-3) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: 335 or 365; physics recommended; permission of instructor to enroll in lab. Integration, coding, plasticity, and development in nervous systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 439. Environmental Physiology. (Dual-listed with EEOB 539.) (3-0) Cr. 3 or (3-3) Cr. 4. Alt. S., offered 2007. Prereq: 355 or A Ecl 311; physics recommended. Physiological adaptations to the environment with an emphasis on vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 454. Plant Anatomy. (3-3) Cr. 4. F. Prereq: Biol 212L; 366 recommended. Characteristics of cell and tissue types in vascular plants. Anatomy of developing and mature stems, roots, and leaves, including secondary (woody) growth. Introduction to the special anatomy of flowers and seeds.
Biol 456. Principles of Mycology. (Same as Micro 456.) (2-3) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: 10 credits in biological sciences. Morphology, diversity and ecology of fungi; their relation to agriculture and industry and human health. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 462. Evolutionary Genetics. (Dual-listed with EEOB 562, same as Gen 462.) (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 315. The genetic basis of evolutionary processes in higher organisms. The role of genetic variation in adaptation, natural selection, adaptive processes, and the influence of random processes on evolutionary change. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 465. Morphometric Analysis. (Dual-listed with EEOB 565.) (3-2) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: Stat 401. A comprehensive overview of the theory and methods for the analysis of biological shape with emphasis on data acquisition, standardization, statistical analysis, and visualization of results. Methods for both landmark and outline data will be discussed. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 472. Community Ecology. (2-2) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 312. The effect of interspecific interactions on the structure and dynamics of natural and managed communities; including concepts of guild structure and trophic web dynamics and their importance to the productivity, diversity, stability, and sustainability of communities. The implications of interspecifc interactions in the management of wild species will be emphasized with illustrative case histories of interactions between plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 474. Plant Ecology. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: Biol 312. Principles of plant population and community ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 480. Studies in Marine Biology. Cr. var. , 1 to 8 each time taken. Courses taken at Gulf Coast Research Laboratory and other marine biological stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number.
Biol 481. Summer Field Studies. Cr. var., 1 to 8 each time taken. Courses taken at summer biological field stations are transferred to Iowa State University under this number. See www.biology.iastate.edu for links to field stations located in different biomes: coastal, Great Lakes, taiga, deciduous forests, deserts, Rocky Mountains.
Biol 482. Tropical Biology. Cr. 1 to 4 each time taken; maximum of 8. Prereq: One year of college biology; knowledge of Spanish desirable but not required. Students registering for courses taught by the Organization for Tropical Studies will receive credit for this ISU course when requesting a transfer of credits.
Biol 483. Environmental Biogeochemistry. (Dual-listed with EEOB 583, Same as EnSci 483, Geol 483.) (3-2) Cr. 4. S. Prereq: Biol 381 and EnSci 402 or Ia LL 402I. Biological, chemical, and physical phenomena controlling material, energy, and elemental fluxes in the environment. Human interactions with and effects on environmental systems. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 486. Aquatic Ecology. (Dual-listed with EEOB 586, EnSci 586, Same as A Ecl 486, EnSci 486.) (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: 312 and 381, EnSci 402, Ia LL 402I or NREM 301. Structure and function of aquatic ecosystems with application to fishery and pollution problems. Emphasis on lacustrine, riverine, and wetland ecology. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 486L. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. (Dual-listed with EEOB 586L, EnSci 586L, Same as EnSci 486L.) (0-3) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Concurrent enrollment in 486. Field trips and laboratory exercises to accompany 486. Hands-on experience with aquatic research and monitoring techniques and concepts. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 487. Aquatic and Wetland Microbial Ecology. (Dual-listed with EEOB 587; same as EnSci 487, Micro 487.) (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 6 credits in biology and 6 credits in chemistry. Introduction to major functional groups and their roles in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. Emphasis on energy flow and nutrient dynamics. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 488. Identification of Aquatic Organisms. (0-3) Cr. 1. F. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 486L. On line taxonomic and identification exercises to accompany 486. Instruction and practice in the identification of algae, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, and benthos. Nonmajor graduate credit.
Biol 490. Independent Study. Cr. 1 to 6 each time taken. Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. See also 490 offerings in biological science departments. No more than 9 credits in Biol 490 may be counted toward graduation and of those only 6 credits may be applied to the major.
Biol 494. Biology Internship. Cr. 1 to 3 each time taken. Prereq: 8 credits in biology and permission of instructor. Intended to provide credit for significant professional experiences in biological sciences. A written proposal is required prior to registration. Intended for Biology majors.
Biol 495. Undergraduate Seminar. Cr. 1. F. Prereq: 15 credits in biological science. Content varies from year to year and may include detailed discussion of special topics in biology, current issues in biology, or careers in biology.
Biol 498. Cooperative Education. Cr. R. F.S.SS. Prereq: Junior classification and permission of the department cooperative education coordinator. Required of all cooperative education students. Students must register for this course prior to commencing each work period.
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