Notes from March 22 and 24th!

Methods of Persuasion
Logos: Research and Reasoning and Pulling it all Together

Persuasion: How do I turn my evidence into powerful arguments? How do I avoid fallacies?

# Three Types of Support Material

• ## Testimony

Are linked to the three modes of persuasion identified by Aristotle.

• ## Shows that you’ve taken the time to think through your position.

Evidence and Reasoning

# Identify the flaw (or flaws) in the use of supporting materials in each of the following statements:

## Statistics compiled by the National Education Association show that the median salary for teachers in our state is \$48,835. This shows that teachers average almost \$49,000 a year in salary.

According to a survey conducted for Verizon Wireless, most people prefer Verizon’s cellular service to that of Cingular, Nextel, or Sprint PCS.

## According to The New York Times Almanac, San Francisco has the highest per capita annual income of any U.S. city—\$57,414. The lowest per capita annual income belongs to McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, Texas, at \$13,344. The average per capita annual income for all U.S. metropolitan areas is \$31,333.

As Sean Penn noted in a recent interview, the United States needs to change its foreign policy in the Middle East. Otherwise, Penn said, it will be impossible to bring about lasting peace in the region.

# Sample Speech: We watched the self defense speech that is at the end of chapter 16.

Reasoning Process: Deduction and Induction.

Deduction refers to arguments that run from general to specific; they are characterized by necessity.
Induction refers to arguments that run from specific to general; they are characterized by an inductive leap.

Classic form of Deduction: the syllogism

The U.S. Constitution guarantees citizens the right to vote.
Women are citizens                                                       .
The U.S. Constitution guarantees women the right to vote.
2. More Typical form of Deduction is called the Enthymeme.  It works like a syllogism but one of the premises is "assumed" rather than stated.  Its strength comes, so some critics argue, from the belief that if the audience supplies the missing premise, then they participate in their own persuasion.

Consider: what do you have to believe for these arguments to make sense?

• She's a girl; she can't throw the ball.
• [assumes the listener will supply the principle that "girls can't throw"]
• He's a man, of course he wouldn't stop to ask directions.
• [assumes he listener will supply the principle that "men don't ask for directions.]
• Gun registration will let the government know where the guns are, so if we support gun registration we are helping the government ban guns and take them away.
• [Assumes the audience will supply the principle: "If the government knows where guns are, they will eventually ban them and come take them away."]
Our text calls these arguments from principle.
Self-Defense speech example
All people who are vulnerable to personal attacks are people who should take a self-defense course.
[this is the assumed premise]
College students are especially vulnerable to personal attacks.
[this is the premise for which much evidence is presented]
Therefore, college students should take a self-defense course.
[Here is where we picked up lecture on Wed. March 24th]

Boating and Drinking Plan
My plan is to require boater safety education.  My claim is that: Mandatory boater education will result in safer behaviors on the waterways.
What must I believe for that argument to work?  That having information about a safety issue will result in safer behaviors.

Beware the false principle.
• The police say he committed the crime, so he committed the crime.
• stereotypes
• starting from principles that only those who already agree with you would maintain.
The major form of Inductive reasoning our text calls argument from specific instances.
Otherwise known as generalization arguments.
• Surveys and studies are often grounded in reasoning from specific instances.
• Neilson ratings
Generalization in the self-defense speech
• College students are especially easy targets for crime.
• Evidence from Street Wisdom for Women.
• Alcohol use and crime
• campus areas are often the highest crime districts of their communities
A Generalization in the Boating and Drinking speech
• Drinking and boating is a serious problem [this is proven by lots of pieces of evidence:]
the example on Fox Lake
Statistics from the National Safety Council
Ranking from the U.S. department of transportation
WI State Center for Health Statistics
the U.S Coast Guard
the National Transportation Safety Board
Beware the Hasty Generalization
• In a random poll taken last month of 320 members of the American Association of Retired Persons, 96 percent of those interviewed clearly opposed any major changes in the Social Security system.  Clearly, then, the American People oppose such changes.  [weak because of bias and so you can't generalize to the population as a whole].
• the two people I sat next to in lecture got Bs on their speeches, so everybody but me got a B on the speech.
• “but Mom, everybody else is going to the party!”

Arguments from Analogy: Literal or Figurative

Both are grounded in the concept of similarity

Examples of Literal Analogies

• Socialized medicine works in Canada, so socialized medicine will work in the U.S.
• The U.S. got rid of the half-penny in 1857 without causing harms, so today we can get rid of the penny without causing harms.
• A self-defense course made me able to defend myself; it will make you able to defend yourself.
Examples of Weak Analogies
• The university shouldn't be able to tell me what classes I have to take; after all, the store manager doesn't tell me what groceries to buy.
• A ban on all alcohol use in the dorms will work at ISU because such a ban worked at Luther College.
• Banning guns worked in Japan, so it will work here.
Figurative Analogies can be useful for framing an argument, but they don't constitute proof.
• Essentially a simile, but can be useful for framing an argument
• As the tiger needs its claws to provide for its internal needs, so does America need its defense in order to meet domestic concerns.
• Malcolm X: An integrated civil rights movement is like strong black coffee diluted with cream; its strength is lost.
Causal Arguments
The most challenging of the types of reasoning.
We cant see causal relationships, we can only infer them.

Problems of Causal Arguments

• “post hoc ergo propter hoc” = “after this therefore because of this”
• confusing a relationship in time with cause and effect
• seen in superstitions
• seen in “just look what happened after we . . . . “ arguments.
• multiple causation
• rainforest destruction is the cause of global warming
• T.V. is responsible for school gun violence.
• my printer problem caused me to be unable to do my speech
• correlation vs. causation
Tips for success in causal reasoning.
• use causal chains to help the audience see the causal relationship.
• use testimony of experts to support conclusions
The textbook also discusses several additional types of fallacies including: slippery slope, red herring, Either-Or fallacy, ad hominem, and bandwagon.  Read that discussion for more information.

Practice
Can you identify the kind or reasoning and or the fallacy in the following examples?
Once you have tried to answer these on your own you can go here for answers and discussion.

1. According to a study by the American Medical Association, men with bald spots have three times the risk of heart attack as men with a full head of hair.  Strange as it may seem, it looks as if baldness is a cause of heart attacks.

2. The U.S. Constitution guarantees all citizens the right to bear arms.  Gun control legislation infringes on the right of citizens to bear arms.  Therefore, gun control legislation is contrary to the Constitution.

3.  I don’t see any reason to wear a helmet when I ride a bike. Everyone bikes without a helmet.

4. It’s ridiculous to worry about protecting America’s national parks against pollution and overuse when innocent people are being killed by domestic terrorists.

5. There can be no doubt that the Great Depression was caused by Herbert Hoover.  He became President in March 1929, and the stock market crashed just seven months later.

6. If we allow the school board to spend money remodeling the gymnasium, next they will want to build a new school and give all the teachers a huge raise.  Taxes will soar so high that businesses will leave and then there will be no jobs for anyone in this town.

7. Raising a child is like having a pet--you need to feed it, play with it, and everything
will be fine.

8. One nonsmoker, interviewed at a restaurant, said, “I can eat dinner just fine even though people around me are smoking.”  Another, responding to a Los Angeles Times survey, said, “I don’t see what all the fuss is about.  My wife has smoked for  years and it has never bothered me.”  We can see, then, that secondhand smoke does not cause a problem for most nonsmokers.

9. I can’t support Representative Frey’s proposal for campaign finance reform.  After all, he was kicked out of law school for cheating on an exam.

10. Our school must either increase tuition or cut back on library services for students.

As you prepare your speeches don't forget to go beyond LOGOS issues to make sure you are using Ethos and Pathos as well.

ETHOS: Building credibility throughout your speech

• Announce your expertise
• in the introduction
• as you cite sources
• Announce your concern
• Build Common Ground with your audience
• demonstrate concern for their interests and needs
• use shared principles (values, beliefs, attitudes) to build your arguments
Deliver your speech fluently, expressively and with conviction
Pathos: Building Emotional Appeals Throughout your Speech
• Use emotional language
• concrete terms
• stylistic devices
• Develop vivid examples
• Speak with sincerity and conviction
• Use emotional appeals hand in hand with your evidence and reasoning

It is a great idea to watch the sample speeches on your textbook CD-ROM and to read the sample speeches in the text and workbook to look for the ways others have used Logos, Ethos and Pathos and also to review the central concepts of Problem, Plan, Practicality in their speeches.

WORKSHOP:  On Friday only those students who speak next week should come with their completed outlines for workshop day.