use of azin phosmethyl (e.g. Guthion), an organophosphate insecticide,
for codling moth control began in the late 1950s and has worked
well during the past 35 years.
the decreasing effectiveness of organophosphate insecticide, the
most common type of broad-spectrum insecticide used in controlling
the major lepidopterous pests of fruit, the possible development
of cross-resistance to carbamate insecticides, and the negative
effects of pyrethroid insecticides on biological control agents
have stimulated research and development for alternative insecticide
chemistries and control tactics for orchard pest management.
few approaches that are compatible with current orchard pest management
programs and show promise for codling moth control are: mating disruption
techniques, the use of synthetic insect growth regulators, and a
combination of these approaches with conventional insecticide treatments.
for enlarged images of Codling Moth.