The Next WAVe(sm):

Auditory Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases

"I Wish They All Could be California Girls"
The Beach Boys, California Girls, Summer Days (and Summer Nights), 1965

PROJECTS, RESEARCH, PRODUCTS and SERVICES

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Human-Computer Interaction and Visualisation Skills Group (HCI-Vis), Division of Information Technology, Canberra, AUSTRALIA

Project Name
TaDa!
Contact
Stephen Barrass (stephen.barrass@gmd.de)

Project Summary
TaDa! "stands for a Task-oriented Data-sensitive method for auditory information design. The method has four phases:

" The scenario description is a short story about the information processing activity that the display is being designed to support. The story describes the purpose of the activity, and the interaction and organization of information elements. These key features are extracted by recasting the story as a question, in accordance with the observation that "useful information is the answer to a question" ... . The requirements are derived by a task analysis ... of the question, an information analysis of answers to that question and a datacharacterization ... of the elements involved. These requirements specify a representation that is useful to the task and true to the data."

"Computer-aided design tools have been built to support the TaDa method through

In case-based synthesis the requirements are used to look-up examples from ... EarBenders [a] database of 150 stories about everyday listening ... . The examples are ranked by similarity of information structure with the requirements. The best matches are a source of semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic relations that can seed the sound design."

"Once the representation has been perceptually organized, the designer may listen and make refinements with ... Personify, [a sound editing tool]. The dynamic range and relationships between elements can be directly manipulated by dragging a graphic selection widget over a visualization of the display gamut. Rapid iteration is supported by immediate feedback of the sounds...."

"The realization of the design requires sounds to be produced on a display device. Displays have different control parameters and output characteristics. A model of a display can be built from measurements of these characteristics. This model allows the sound specifications to be reproduced on different displays. ... [T]his is similar to an approach taken to color reproduction in visualization ... ..

"The TaDa method integrates task analysis, a database of sound examples, a rule-based design aid, and interactive sound design tools. The method focuses on designing an auditory representation to meet information requirements, so the display is useful for a task and true to the data."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
GeoViewer

Gold

Resource Planning

Auditory Information Design Demonstrations

References
BARRASS, S. Auditory Information Design. Thesis (Ph.D), Australian National University, 1997

BARRASS, S. EarBenders: Using stories about listening to design auditory interfaces. Paper presented at the APCHI '96, First Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Human Factors of IT: Enhancing Productivity and Quality of Life, June 25-28, 1996, SINGAPORE.

BARRASS, S. Personify: a toolkit for perceptually meaningful sonification. Paper presented at ACMA'95, the Third Annual Conference of the Australian Computer Music Association, June 9-11, 1995, University of Melbourne, AUSTRALIA.

BARRASS, S. TaDa!: demonstrations of auditory information design. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

Cornell University, Department of Computer Science, Ithaca, New York, USA

Project Name
AsTeR (Audio System For Technical Readings)
Contact
T.V. Raman (raman@adobe.com)

Project Summary
"The advent of electronic documents makes information available in more than its visual form -- -electronic information can now be display-independent. AsTeR -- Audio System For Technical Readings -- is a computing system for rendering technical documents in audio."

AsTeR audio formats electronic documents to produce audio documents. AsTeR can speak both literary texts and highly technical documents (e.g. in La)TeX) that contain complex mathematics.

"Moreover, the listener can ask to have parts of the document repeated in different ways ..."

"AsTeR is interactive, and the ability to browse information structure and obtain multiple views enables active listening." "The adequacy of the audio rendering depends on how well the electronic document captures the essential internal structure of the information."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
AsTeR Demonstration

Enhanced AsTeR Demonstration

References
HAYES, B. Computing Science: Speaking of mathematics. American Scientist 84(2), March-April 1996,110-113.

RAMAN, T.V. AsTeR --towards modality-independent electronic documents. In DAGS '95, Conference on Electronic Publishing and the Information Superhighway: Enabling Technologies, Issues, and Applications, May 30 - June 2, 1995, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

RAMAN, T.V. AsTeR --towards modality-independent electronic documents. Multimedia Tools and Applications 6(2), March 1998,141-151.

RAMAN, T.V. Audio System For Technical Readings. Thesis (Ph.D), Cornell University, 1994.

RAMAN, T.V. Auditory User Interfaces: Toward the Speaking Computer, Boston, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

RAMAN, T.V. Information on the NII is not just for viewing! In Technology and Persons with Disabilities : Proceedings of the Tenth Annual International Conference, March 14-18, 1995, Los Angeles, California, California State University at Northridge, Center on Disabilities, 1995.

RAMAN, T.V. and GRIES, D. Interactive audio documents. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 7(1), March 1996,97-108.

RAMAN, T.V. Multimodal Information Presentation System. Patent, U.S. 5,748,186, Issued May 5, 1998.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Multimedia Computing Group, Graphics, Visualization, & Usability Center, College of Computing, Atlanta, Georgia,USA

Project Name
Mercator
Principal Investigator
Beth Mynatt (mynatt@parc.xerox.com)

W. Keith Edwards (kedwards@parc.xerox.com)

Project Summary
Begun in 1991, Mercator "provides access to X Windows applications for people who are blind by transforming the graphical interface into an interactive auditory interface."

"This work contributes to the field of human-computer interaction by exploring the transformation of an application interface from the graphical modality to the auditory modality while maintaining the underlying conceptual model of the application interface. In order to achieve this transformation, two primary design issues have been addressed. The first issue is modeling the graphical interface so that it captures the salient characteristics of the application interface while discarding information relevant only in the graphical presentation. The second issue is realizing the model of the graphical interface as an auditory interface."

Mercator is named for Gerhardus Mercator, the "cartographer who devised a way of projecting the spherica; Earth's surfcae onto a flat surface with straight-line bearings. The Mercator Projection os a ammping between a three-dimensional presentation and a two-dimensional presentation of the same information. The Mercator Environment provides a mapping from a two-dimensional graphical display to a three-dimesnional auditory display of the same user interface."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
References
MYNATT, E.D. Auditory presentation of graphical user interfaces. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 533-555. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

MYNATT, E.D. Transforming graphical interfaces into auditory interfaces. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95 Conference Proceedings, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

MYNATT, E.D. Transforming graphical interfaces into auditory interfaces for blind users. Human-Computer Interaction 12(1-2), 1997,7-45.

MYNATT, E.D. and EDWARDS, W.K. Mapping GUIs to auditory interfaces. In UIST '92: 5th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, November 15-18, 1992, Monterey, California, USA.

MYNATT, E.D. and EDWARDS, W.K. The Mercator Environment: A Nonvisual Interface to the X Window System, Technical report, GIT-GVU-92-05, Graphics, Visualization & Usability Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, February 1992.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Visualization and Virtual Reality Group, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
Project Name
The Audible Factory / Audible Assembly Line

The Talking Miter Saw

Principal Investigator
Sandy Ressler (sressler@nist.gov)

Qiming Wang (qwang@nist.gov)

Project Summary
... [T]here are several ways to make VRML worlds accessible by the visually and physically impaired. The addition of embedded text, sounds and assistive devices such as a speech recognition systems all contribute to more accessible virtual worlds. Web designers wishing to make their VRML worlds more accessible should:

"Audio provides a set of rich capabilities to improve access to a VRML world. The three types of audio ... examine[d] here are: ambient background music, spoken descriptions, and speech synthesis. Ambient music can play and change as the user moves from one room to another, providing a subtle yet intuitive location cue. Spoken descriptions of objects can play as the viewer moves close to an object. Speech synthesizers can "read" embedded text. Given the availability of a speech synthesizer, text from Anchor node descriptions or WorldInfo nodes can be spoken. ... [I]nternet accessible speech synthesizers such as the [Bell] Labs Text-to-Speech system ... provide easy access to speech synthesizers.

Two examples of accessible VRML worlds have beewn created. "One, The Audible Assembly Line, is representative of an environment intended for "walk" mode. The other environment, The Talking Miter Saw, is intended for "examiner" mode. The Audible Assembly Line demonstrates the use of spoken descriptions. The user is immediately greeted with an introductory description. Each viewpoint, accessible via the PageUp and PageDown keys, has associated with it a spoken description of the workstation. In the case of The Talking Miter Saw, object descriptions appear on the browser's window because of the description field of the Anchor node. The name of the part being selected is spoken by passing the string to a speech synthesizer."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
The Audible Factory

The Talking Miter Saw

VRML Accessibility Tools

References
RESSLER, S. and WANG, Q. Making VRML Accessible for People with Disabilities. In Proceedings of ASSETS '98, the Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 15-17, 1998, Marina del Rey, California, USA.

Oxford Brookes University, Speech Project, Intelligent Systems Research Group, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, UK

Project Name
BrookesTalk (WebChat)
Contact
Mary Zajicek (mzajicek@brookes.ac.uk)

Chris Powell (cpowell@brookes.ac.uk)

Product Summary
"BrookesTalk is a small speech output browser which is independent of conventional browsers and also independent of text to speech software applications. It uses Microsoft speech technology. It includes the functionality of a standard Web browser for the blind such as pwWebSpeak(tm) in that it can break up the text part of a Web page into headings and links and read out paragraphs etc. However the main aim is to provide an orientation tool for blind users. Most particularly to offer a range of tools that will provide a synopsis of a Web page to help the user decide whether it will be useful to them or not."

"BrookesTalk offers a virtual toolbar driven by function keys. The functions available provide a quick way of knowing what the page is about. Users can select from a list of headings, list of links, list of keywords, list of bookmarks, list of scratchpad entries, a summary of the page, abridged text, and can also reach and read out chunks of text which are organised hierarchically under headings. It is expected that the user will pick tools from the virtual toolbar which complement one another for the particular page under review."

"The keyword list contains words found using accepted information retrieval techniques .... Abridged text is compiled from sentences found using key trigrams. The scratchpad allows users to save any sentence they are listening to which, simply by pressing a key. They can then playback lists of sentences linked to particular pages. The summary of the page includes author defined keywords, the number of words in a page, the number of headings and the number of links."

"The aim of BrookesTalk is to support users in this type of activity where speedy decisions about the usefulness of a page or part of a page are paramount."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
The Speech Project
References

ZAJICEK, M. and POWELL, C.Building a conceptual model of the World Wide Web for visually impaired users. In Contemporary Ergonomics 1997: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society, April 15-17, 1997, Stoke Rochford Hall, England, UK, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1997.

ZAJICEK, M., POWELL, C. and REEVES, C. Orientation of blind users on The World Wide Web. In Contemporary Ergonomics 1998: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society, April 1-3, 1998, Cirencester, England, UK, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1998.

ZAJICEK, M., POWELL, C. and REEVES, C. A Web navigation tool for the blind. In Proceedings of ASSETS '98, the Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 15-17, 1998, Marina del Rey, California, USA.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA

Project Name
loudSPIRE
Contact
Irene McVeety (renie.mcveety@pnl.gov)

W. M. Harris (wm_harris@pnl.gov)

Eric M. LoPresti (Eric_Lopresti@iris.com)

Project Summary
"SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) is a system for analyzing the information contained within large numbers of documents, using the twin visual paradigms of a galaxy and Themescape. In SPIRE, the semantic content of each document is represented as a vector of component themes ..." "Documents are placed so that those with similar theme vectors (corresponding to similar content) appear close together, while those with disparate themes fall further apart."

However, "even with careful interface design, SPIRE is a complex system with many interface elements. The amount of information that ... [one]... might need is sometimes simply greater than the visual interface can handle without sacrificing intuitiveness and simplicity." Auditory Display (AD) technologies have been applied to enhance access and use of the semantic content generated represented by SPIRE visual galaxies and Themescapes.

"Auditory Display (AD) has the potential to break through the barriers of a purely visual display. Certain unique properties of the auditory perceptual system are well-suited to the challenges found in SPIRE, and can actually make audio the more suitable form of display for some tasks."

loudSPIRE, a prototype applying Auditory Display to the SPIRE system, was "built on a Macintosh computer in Macromedia Director, using a MIDI synthesizer to generate sounds.""The interface consists of two components: a control panel (with associated menus) and a display, which takes up the bulk of the computer screen. These components allow the user to manipulate the auditory and visual display of SPIRE data, using a mouse and computer keyboard." Project suspended

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://multimedia.pnl.gov:2080/projects/ad/act.html

http://multimedia.pnl.gov:2080/projects/ad/loudspire.html

http://multimedia.pnl.gov:2080/projects/ad/loudspire2.html

References
LOPRESTI, E. and M.W. HARRIS. loudSPIRE, an Auditory Display Schema for the SPIRE system. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

LOPRESTI, E. and M.W. HARRIS. Sonic exploration of thematic information. Paper presented at the 102nd Audio Engineering Society Convention, March 22-25, 1997, Munich, Germany. (Audio Engineering Society Preprints #4478)

WISE, J.A., J.R., THOMAS, J.J., PENNOCK, K., LANTRIP, D., POTTIER, M., SCHUR, A. and CROW, V. Visualizing the non-visual: spatial analysis and interaction with information from text documents. In Proceedings, Information Visualization, October 30-31, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA . IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, c1995.

The Productivity Works, Inc., Trenton, New Jersey, USA

Product Name
pwWebSpeak(tm)
Contact
pwWebSpeak(tm) Support and Availability (support@prodworks.com)

The Productivity Works, Inc. (info@prodworks.com)

Product Summary
"pwWebSpeak(tm) is an Internet browser designed for users who wish to access the Internet in a non-visual or combined auditory and visual manner. This includes users who cannot be tied to a keyboard or monitor, blind or visually impaired users, users with dyslexia or other learning disorders, and users who are learning new languages."

pwWebSpeak(tm) is designed specifically to interact directly with the information on the Web pages and to translate the information content into speech and a simplified visual display. The user may navigate through the structure of a document based on its contents, paragraphs and sentences, rather than having to deal with scrolling and interpreting a structured screen display. The intelligence built into pwWebSpeak understands the HTML constructs and automatically bypasses those constructs that have no relation to the information content of a document. Both speech and large character interpretation of the Web pages are provided so that all classes or users can use the software effectively."

"pwWebSpeak(tm) was designed and developed by The Productivity Works, Inc. in conjunction with De Witt and Associates, who act as accessibility consultants to the project, and Thomas Edison State College."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.prodworks.com/sftvoice.wav

pwWebSpeak(tm) Project

pwWebSpeak Version 1.2 Evaluation Version

References
HAKKINEN, M. and DEWITT, J. pwWebSpeak: User Interface Design of an Accessible Web Browser. White Paper, The Productivity Works, Inc., Trenton, New Jersey, USA, 1996?

Frequently Asked Questions pwWebSpeak Release 1.2 , FAQ, The Productivity Works, Inc., Trenton, New Jersey, USA.

Software lets the blind browse the Web. USA Today, Tech Report, September 2, 1997.

T.V. Raman, San Jose, California, USA

Project Name
Emacspeak
Contact
T.V. Raman (raman@adobe.com)

Project Summary
Emacspeak is a "full-fledged speech interface" that was "originally designed to provide visually impaired users with productive access to the wealth of network computing resources available on UNIX platforms."

"The key innovation [in Emacspeak] is ... [a] speech-enabling approach that allows the separation of the computational component of an application from its user interface." While most screen-readers developed for the blind allow users to listen to the contents ppearing in different parts of the display, ... users are entirely responsible for building a mental model of the visual display to interpret what an application is trying to convey." Emacspeak "does not speak the screen". Instead, [i]t provides speech feedback from within the application, allowing the application to render information in both ... visually and aurally." "Emacspeak audio-formats the text (analogous to visual formatting) and augments the spoken text with nonspeech auditory icons to succinctly convey information other than the text itself (such as events triggered by the application), ... vastly improves the quality of the spoken feedback."

The Emacspeak design is motivated by the following goals:

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Emacspeak

Emacspeak-8.0 (BlackDog)

Emacspeak is available via Anonymous FTP from ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/. Change Directory to: pub/raman/emacspeak.

References
GIBBS, W. Profile: T.V. Raman - Envisioning Speech. Scientific American 275(3), September 1996,52,54.

RAMAN, T.V. Auditory User Interfaces: Toward the Speaking Computer, Boston, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

RAMAN, T.V. Emacspeak: a speech-enabling interface. Dr. Dobb's Journal: Software Tools for the Professional Programmer 22(9), September 1997,18-20,22-23.

RAMAN, T.V. Emacspeak - A Speech Output Subsystem For Emacs. Web resource, May 15, 1998.

RAMAN, T.V. Emacspeak - direct speech access. In Proceedings of ASSETS '96, the Second Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

SONICON, Watertown, Massachuetts, USA
Product Name
marcopolo
Principal Investigator
David Owen (deo@sonicon.com)
Product Summary
"marcopolo provides eyes-free access to the World Wide Web. It is for blind and low-vision computer users or anyone who wishes to browse the Web without having to look at a computer monitor."

"marcopolo is a Netscape plug-in that utilizes both standard soundboards and the DECtalktm text-to-speech synthesizer to provide access to the Web using spoken and musical sounds."

marcopolo system requirements:

Demonstration or Prototype Access
How to Use marcopolo

OWEN, D. (SONICON) and JAMES, F. (Stanford University), Interview, Pat & Mike, Live at the 6th International World Wide Web Conference, April 9, 1997.

References
DOUGHERTY, D. IMHO: Everyone, Everything, Connected - A Report from the World Wide Web conference. Web review, April 11, 1997.

OWEN, D. (SONICON) and JAMES, F. (Stanford University), Interview, Pat & Mike, Live at the 6th International World Wide Web Conference, April 9, 1997.

Stanford University, Department of Computer Science / Center for the Study of Language and Information, Project on People, Computers and Design, Palo Alto, California, USA
Project Name
AHA (Audio HTML Access)
Principal Investigator
Frankie James (fjames@cs.stanford.edu)
Project Summary
AHA (Audio HTML Access) is a "system for presenting HTML in audio for blind users and others who wish to access the WWW non-visually."

"The AHA system is based on the principle that HTML files explicitly contain both the textual and structural content of a document, and that these two types of content are both essential for understanding the document. AHA provides a framework for discussing audio marking techniques and how they can relate to different HTML structures to provide an intuitive, easily-learnable, audio interface to HTML."

"Audio interfaces can take advantage of what people already know and are familiar with in the real world, such as radio broadcasts, books on tape, and children's audio story books. AHA's framework does just this. The selection of sounds and melodies in the AHA framework is based on familiarity in the real world because familiar sounds are easier to comprehend in an interface than unfamiliar ones. Therefore, AHA can deal with a variety of audio marking techniques, such as multiple voices, 'natural' sounds, and musical sounds."

"AHA is not currently being developed into a commercial system for accessing the web, but is rather a prototype system along with a set of guidelines and a framework which may underlie a commercial system."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www-pcd.stanford.edu/frankie/pilot/

OWEN, D. (SONICON) and JAMES, F. (Stanford University), Interview, Pat & Mike, Live at the 6th International World Wide Web Conference, April 9, 1997.

References
JAMES, F. AHA: Audio HTML access. Paper presented at the Accessibility, the Sixth World Wide Web Conference, April 7-11, 1997, Santa Clara, California, USA Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 29(8-13), 1997,1395-1404.

JAMES, F. Experimenting with audio interfaces. Web Techniques 3(2), February 1998,55-8.

JAMES, F. Lessons from developing audio HTML interfaces. Paper presented at Assets '98, The Third International ACM SIGCAPH Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 15-17, 1998, Marina del Rey, California, USA.

JAMES, F. Presenting HTML structure in audio: user satisfaction with audio hypertext. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

JAMES. F. Presenting HTML structure in audio: user satisfaction with audio hypertext. Technical report, CSLI Technical Report 97-201, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, January 1997.

OWEN, D. (SONICON) and JAMES, F. (Stanford University), Interview, Pat & Mike, Live at the 6th International World Wide Web Conference, April 9, 1997.

Sun Microsystems, Inc., JavaSoft, Palo Alto, California, USA

Project Name
The Audible Web
Principal Investigator
Michael C. Albers (michael.albers@sun.com)
Project Summary
The Audible Web seeks to aid users monitoring of data transfer progress in their navigation of the World Wide Web by embedding non-speech auditory feedback cues within a Web browser.

Mosaic was chosen as the [original] test platform for auditory enhancements because it exhibited known human-computer interaction problems. In the [original] Mosaic, users receive[d] little or no feedback about the results of ongoing processes, the identification and resolution of user actions, the size and content of information referenced by links, and the time to obtain that information. The highly visual task of scanning WWW pages filled with hypertext links, graphics, forms, and animation suggested that users could benefit from feedback in a non-visual modality. By using auditory instead of visual enhancements to provide higher information levels to users, the information display shifted from the overloaded visual modality to the auditory channel."

"The Audible Web uses auditory cues to enhance interactions between users and Mosaic in three ways: by aiding users' monitoring of these data transfer progress, by providing feedback for users' actions, and by providing content feedback to aid users in navigation."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://java.sun.com/people/mca/papers/WWW3/WWW_AW.html

http://java.sun.com/people/mca/projects/AW/AudibleWeb.html#Feedback

References

ALBERS, M. Auditory cues for browsing, surfing, and navigating. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

ALBERS, M. and BERGMAN, E. The Audible Web: Auditory enhancements for Mosaic. In CHI '95, Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Symbolic Sound Corporation, Champaign, Illinois, USA

Product Name
Kyma
Principal Investigator
Carla Scaletti (info-kyma@SymbolicSound.com)
Product Summary
"Kyma is modular, software-based audio synthesis and processing accelerated by DSP hardware. Sound designers use a graphical signal flow editor on the screen of either a Macintosh or PC to specify how to synthesize and process the sound. The signal flow diagram is turned into a program for the multiple-DSP Capybara hardware (which connects to the host computer via PCI, NuBus, ISA, or, for laptops, a PC card)."

"In addition to its open-endedness and flexibility, Kyma provides sound designers with several unusual synthesis and processing possibilities including spectral morphing, granular synthesis, vocoding, cross-synthesis, analog-style synthesis and sequencing and a graphic spectrum editor ..."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Introduction

MIDI Control

Morphing & Cross-Synthesis

Sequencing and Mixing

Signal Flow

Kyma 4.5

References
HEBEL, K. and SCALETTI, C. A Framework for the design, development, and delivery of real-time software-based sound synthesis and processing algorithms. Paper presented at the 96th Audio Engineering Society Convention, November 10-13, 1994, San Francisco, California, USA (Audio Engineering Society Preprints #3874)

SCALETTI, C. Kyma: An Interactive Graphic Enviornment for Object-oriented Music Composition and Real-time Software Sound Synthesis Written in Smalltalk-80. Technical Report, UIUCDCS-R-89-1498, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA, January 18, 1995.

SCALETTI, C. Sound synthesis algorithms for auditory data representations. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 223-251. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

SCALETTI, C. and CRAIG, A. Using sound to extract meaning from complex data. In Extracting Meaning From Complex Data : Processing, Display, Interaction II, February 26-28, 1991, San Jose, California, USA. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering ; 1459)

SCALETTI, C. and HEBEL, K.A. The Kyma Sound Design Language. Champaign, Illinois, Symbolic Sound Corporation, 1997.

Technical University of Berlin, Institut fuer Fernmeldetechnik, Department of Electrical Engineering, Berlin, GERMANY

Project Name
[Spatial Auditory Environment in a Ring Topology]
Principal Investigator
Kai Crispien (kai@naxos.kt.tu-cottbus.de)

Klaus Fellbaum (fellbaum@naxos.kt.tu-cottbus.de)

Project Summary
For this project a multimedia toolkit for non-visual interaction was developed which provides a 3D-auditory navigation environment. "This environment will enable blind users to review a hierarchical organization of auditory interaction objects by using direct manipulation techniques through 3D-pointing, hand gestures and speech recognition input."

"To design a spatial auditory user interface, appropriate to support a hierarchical navigation scheme, a "ring" metaphor was chosen as the conceptual model underlying the auditory interaction environment. According to this model, the items comprising a particular selection set are structured in a three-dimensional "ring topology", which surrounds the user. This topology is provided by structuring auditory interaction objects in virtual locations on a circular track in the horizontal plane around the user's head (Figure 1) through dedicated spatial audio processing."

"To avoid an overload of the user's auditory perceptive capabilities, we have restricted the number of simultaneously audible objects within a ring structure. Only those three objects are auditorily represented, which are parts of a virtual 'auditory focus area' (Figure 2). This area covers an angle of 90 [degrees], derived from the actual frontal head direction of the user, which is dynamically scanned and updated by a magnetic position-tracking device residing on top of the user's head (headphone). If the user changes his 'view point' or the ring structure is actively turned through dedicated input commands, objects which are no longer part of the focus area smoothly fade-out and the corresponding successors within the updated area fade-in. The use of the head-tracking device also provides the dynamic identification of a "focus object," by determining the collision of the head direction vector with a certain auditory object. Thus, the user becomes able to intuitively focus an object of interest, by simply changing his "view point." Input commands for the manipulation of an auditory object will automatically be dedicated to the selected focus object.

"Technically, the 3D-audio environment is realized with an "ACOUSTETRON 2" system from Crystal River Engineering Inc., connected to a SUN workstation in a client server topology. ... [T]wo DSP boards are used, providing four simultaneously audible auditory objects (16 bit, 44.1 kHz). Speech recognition is carried out with a PC-based system, called "Speechmaster" from the German manufacturer Aspect. This system performs a speaker-dependent compound- word recognition that is highly reliable after performing several training sessions with a specific user. A "Cyberglove" pointing device, capable of recognizing hand gesture is used to provide pointing and hand gesture command input."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Figure 1

Figure 2

References

CRISPIEN, K., FELLBAUM, K., SAVIDIS, A. and STEPHANIDIS, C. A 3D-auditory environment for hierarchical navigation in non-visual interaction. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

SAVIDAS, A., STEPHANIDIS, C., KORTE, A., CRISPIEN, K. and FELLBAUM, K. Generic direct-manipulation 3D-auditory environment for hierarchical navigation in non-visual interaction. In ASSETS'96, the Second ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 11-12 1996, Vancouver, British Columbia, CANADA.

University of California, Laboratory for Visualization and Graphics, Department of Computer Science, Santa Cruz, California, USA Santa Cruz, California, USA

Project Name
Listen
Principal Investigator
Suresh K. Lodha (lodha@cse.ucsc.edu)

Catherine M. Wilson (cmwilson@wildestdreams.com)

Project Summary
Listen "is an object-oriented, modular system ... [designed] to provide ... a toolkit for exploring data of any type." ... [I]t provides incremental functionality ... [allowing] researchers can begin using sonification with a minimum investment of time and resources. Once sonification has proven its value, researchers can implement more sophisticated capabilities. Listen can be easily adapted by the ser to a particular environment and extended when additional functionality is required. A key feature of Listen is that it can be easily incorporated into an existing visualization system.

To provide incremental functionality, there are four basic programs that comprise the toolkit. Listen 1 accepts command-line arguments and uses the internal audio chip. Listen 2 uses the internal audio chip and has a graphical user interface that permits more complex mappings than Listen 1. Listen 3 uses a MIDI device and also has a graphical user interface. Listen 4 is a module version of Listen 3 and is designed to be easily incorporated into an existing visualization program.""As a unit, these four programs provide a structured starting point for experimenting with sonification. The expectation is that, using the basic ideas already implemented and with the experience already gained, the user will create more complex, more interesting, and more useful sonification tools as more is learned about sonification in a particular environment."

Listen is an object-oriented system written in C++ for the SGI platform. Listen has five modules: an interface module, a control module, a data manager module, a sound mapping module, and a sound device module.

"The primary objective in the creation of Listen was to provide an inexpensive, general purpose, flexible, interactive, adaptable and portable sonification tool."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
The Listen software is available via Anonymous FTP from ftp.cse.ucsc.edu. Change Directory to: pub/lodha/listen ; GET listen.tar.gz.
References
LODHA, S.K., WILSON, C.M. and SHEEHAN, R.E. LISTEN: sounding uncertainty visualization. In Visualization '96, Proceeding of the Seventh Annual IEEE Visualization Conference, October 27 - November 1, 1996, San Francisco, California, USA.

WILSON, C.M. Listen: A Data Sonification Toolkit. Thesis (M.S.), University of California at Santa Cruz, 1996.

WILSON, C.M. and LODHA, S.K. Listen: a data sonification toolkit. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

University of Glasgow, Glasgow Interactive Systems Group, Department of Computer Science, Glasgow, UK

Project Name
Earcons
Principal Investigator
Stephen Brewster (stephen@dcs.gla.ac.uk)
Project Summary
Earcons "are abstract, musical tones that can be used in structured combinations to create auditory messages." As defined by Meera M. Blattner, Professor Applied Science at the University of California, Davis, USA, who first proposed them 1989, Earcons are "non-verbal audio messages that are used in the computer/user interface to provide information to the user about some computer object, operation or interaction". Earcons are based upon synthetic musical tones.

Earcons "are constructed from simple building blocks called motives. These are short, rhythmic sequences of pitches that can be combined in different ways. ... [A] motive is a brief succession of pitches arranged in such a way as to produce a tonal pattern sufficiently distinct to allow it to function as an individual recognisable entity..." "The most important features of motives are: Rhythm, Pitch, Timbre, Register and Dynamics.

Earcons can be combined to produce complex audio messages. For example Earcons for such operations as 'Open', 'Close', 'File', and 'Program' could be created. These could be combined to produce higher order Earcons such 'Open File' or 'Close Program'.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Earcon Experiments

Sonically-Enhanced~Widgets

References
BREWSTER, S.A. Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of York, UK, 1994.

BREWSTER, S.A. A Sonically enhanced interface toolkit. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

BREWSTER, S.A. Using earcons to improve the usability of a graphics package. Paper prepared for HCI'98, People and Computers XIII, September 1-4, 1998, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

BREWSTER, S.A. Using non-speech sounds to overcome information overload. Displays 17(3-4), May 1997,179-89.

BREWSTER, S.A. RATY, V.-P. and KORTEKANGAS, A. Earcons as a method of providing navigational cues in a menu hierarchy. In People and Computers XI: Proceedings of HCI '96, August 20-23, 1996, London, England, UK, London, Springer Verlag, 1996.

BREWSTER, S.A., WRIGHT, P.C. and EDWARDS, A.D.N. A Detailed investigation into the effectiveness of earcons. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, roceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 471-498. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

University of Hertfordshire, Sensory Disabilities Research Unit (SDRU), Department of Psychology, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK

Project Name
DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-Visual Interface)
Principal Investigator
Helen Petrie, Director, SDRU, (h.l.petrie@herts.ac.uk)

Sarah Morley (s.morley@herts.ac.uk)

Peter McNally (p.mcnally@herts.ac.uk)

Anne-Marie O'Neill (a.m.o-neill@herts.ac.uk)

Project Summary
DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-Visual Interface) was developed "[a]s part of the ... ACCESS Project, a hypermedia system for blind students. system for blind students. This stand-alone system was used to explore the fundamental issues of auditory navigation through hypermedia information. The system was developed with a user-centred approach, by investigating non-visual hypermedia presentation and navigation methods from the perspective of blind users. It is believed that this approach ensures that the system supports effective, efficient and comfortable non-visual use, rather than simply making an existing visual browser accessible in a non-visual format. The main goals during the development of the hypermedia system were to: "[P]rototypes of the ACCESS hypermedia system were built for blind students, based on user-requirements studies and user-based evaluations and potential blind end-users were involved in several evaluations throughout the design of the system.".

"DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-Visual Interface, pronounced Danny) was designed to support both novice and expert users, and to be used with three input devices: a standard keyboard, a standard joystick, and a custom-made touch-tablet. The interface had to be semantically consistent across these three devices, and therefore a spatial arrangement was chosen which would map easily from one input device to another. The interface presented information about commands and events in digitised speech and non-speech sounds."

"Final evaluations of the prototype involved a 37-node hypermedia module (using synthetic speech, digitised speech, sound effects, pictures and descriptions of pictures), accessed by the non-visual interface, DAHNI. 9 visually impaired students undertook training and practice sessions over several weeks and then completed an intensive usability evaluation. The evaluation method involved several complementary objective and subjective measures to assess usability, performance and user preference. The system allowed blind users to perform auditory navigation through hypermedia effectively, and the non-speech sounds for information and feedback were particularly useful in an auditory system such as this. Issues for the design of auditory interfaces are presented in Morley et al 1998. "

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Not available
References
MORLEY, S., PETRIE, H., O'NEILL,A-M., and MCNALLY, P. Auditory navigation in hyperspace: design and evaluation of a non-visual hypermedia system for blind users. In Proceedings of ASSETS '98, the Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 15-17, 1998, Marina del Rey, California, USA.

PETRIE, H., MORLEY, S., MCNALLY, P. and GRAZIANI, P. Access to hypermedia information systems for blind people. Presented at ECART3 Conference, October 11-13, 1995, Lisbon, PORTUGAL.

PETRIE, H., MORLEY, S., MCNALLY, P. and GRAZIANI, P. Authoring Hypermedia Systems for Blind People. In IEE Colloquium (Digest), IEE Computing and Control Division Colloquium on The Authoring and Application of Hypermedia-Based Used-Interfaces, November 14, 1995, London, England, UK, 202.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, Pablo Research Group, Department of Computer Science, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Project Name
Porsonify
Principal Investigator
Tara M. Madhyastha (tara@cs.cmu.edu)

Daniel A. Reed (reed@cs.uiuc.edu)

Project Summary
"The lack of standards governing the software interface to sound hardware, as well as the diversity of sound hardware, make it difficult to portably integrate mappings of data to sound ( sonifications) with existing data visualization tools. Porsonify is a sonification "tool kit that provides a uniform network interface to sound devices through table-driven sound servers."

"Sonifications can be constructed that encapsulate all device-specific functions in control files for each server. A user interface to configure sound devices and sonifications can be generated independent of the underlying hardware. This framework was easily integrated with an environment designed to support the performance analysis of massively parallel computer systems, providing synchronized sound and graphics."

"Several sonifications of both multivariate data and time-varying performance data, created in this environment," have been prepared.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
Sound examples cited in MADHYASTHA, T.M. and REED, D.A. Data sonification: do you see what I hear?. IEEE Software 12(2), March 1995,45-56.

The Porsonify software is available via Anonymous FTP from www-pablo.cs.uiuc.edu. Change Directory to: pub/Pablo.Release/Source/ ; GET Porsonify.tar.Z.

References
MADHYASTHA, T.M. A Description of the Classes and Methods of the Personify Audio Software. Technical Report, Pueblo Research Group, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA, January 18, 1995.

MADHYASTHA, T.M. Porsonify: A Portable System for Data Sonification, User's Manual, Pueblo Research Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 1, 1992.

MADHYASTHA, T.M. A Portable System for Data Sonification. Thesis (M.S.), 1992.

MADHYASTHA, T.M. and REED, D.A. Data sonification: do you see what I hear?. IEEE Software 12(2), March 1995,45-56.

MADHYASTHA, T.M. and REED, D.A. A Framework for auditory display design. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 267-289. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

University of Limerick, Interaction Design Centre, Limerick, IRELAND

Project Name
BROWSE
Principal Investigator
Mikael Fernström (Mikael.Fernstrom@ul.ie)

Liam.Bannon (Liam.Bannon@ul.ie)

Project Summary
BROWSE "is a 2-year research project focused on the development of Novel Multimedia Browsing Mechanisms." [The team] is "investigating how sound can be used more fully in order to assist users in comprehending complex data sets." To date, the research team has focused on a musical data set - the well-known Fleischmann collection of Irish traditional music (Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855) in the Irish World Music Centre at the University of Limerick. "This data set contains 11,734 records of high complexity, including musical score notation and a number of different classifications and key."

"In the visual interface, [the team has] began to explore how to add and combine more dimensions. Relative to the Spotfire system, [it] has added geometrical shape to the range of visual representation of information objects. In the sonic interface, [it] has investigated multiple stream spatial audio representations. For the integration of multimedia in the browser interface, [the team has] attempted to combine the visual and sonic representations, to provide consistent interaction and to increase the user's feeling of direct engagement."

A prototype system is running on a standard multimedia PC with Windows software. The team is " investigating a star-field type display of data utilising a number of user-controllable parameters in the display shape, colour, size, and location of objects."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.ul.ie/~idc/library/code/mmbrowse01/mmbrowse.html#content
References
FERNSTRÖM, M. and BANNON, L. Explorations in sonic browsing. In People and Computers XII: proceedings of HCI '97, August 12-15, 1997, Bristol, England, UK, Springer Verlag, London, 1997.

University of North Texas, School of Library and Information Sciences, Texas, USA

Project Name
Project ICON
Principal Investigator
Mark E. Rorvig (mrorvig@jove.acs.unt.edu)
Project Summary
This work explores the representation of data by sound by presenting a musical representation of the Dewey Decimal Classification Schedule with a further representation of a score for a section of the schedule on 'women'. Applications of this technique to the searching and analysis of large bibliographic databases are also considered.

The pioneering work in scientific auralization was that of Susumu Ohno who converted repetitive sequences of amino acids in DNA into musical notation and then played them. "The Project ICON Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin ... [was] engaged in a similar set of experiments with the repetitive sequences of Dewey Decimal Classes (DDC) taken from the schedules of the classification and from the index classification numbers. ... [T]he index classifications 'Men,' 'Women,' 'Play,' and 'Civil' were converted into tonal values and played by machine. Additionally, the schedules for the class numbers 355.1 and 220 for 'Military Life' and the 'Bible' were also processed and played.'

"These six etudès displayed a remarkable degree of harmony and conformed to the expectations for each heading to a startling degree. ... [I]n all cases, the sounds of these subjects were unique and readily discriminable for each class."

[It] "is believed that there may be many applications for the ability to to search [bibliographic] files by sound." Three highly innovative applications are described within the RORVIG and ORKISZEWSKI paper.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
The code for a simple Pascal (MS-DOS Turbo) program and a musical score of the sequence of the notes associated with the DDC call numbers listed in the classification index for 'Women' are provided as appendices to the RORVIG and ORKISZEWSKI paper.
References
OHNO, S. and OHNO, M. The All pervasive principle of repetitious recurrence governs not only coding sequence construction but also human endeavor in musical composition. Immnogenetics 24(2), 1986,71-78.

RORVIG, M.E. and ORKISZEWSKI, P.T. An Aural interface for exploration of large bibliographic databases: the sound of subjects. In Proceedings of the Tenth National Online Meeting , May 9-11, 1989, New York, New York, Learned Information, Medford, New Jersey, USA, 1989.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

BALLAS, J.A. Delivery of information through sound. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 79-94. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

BARRASS, S. A Perceptual framework for the auditory display of scientific data. In Proceeding of ICAD'94, the Second International Conference on Auditory Display, November 7-9, 1994, [International Community for Auditory Display?], Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 1994?.

BLATTNER, M.M., PAPP III, A.L. and GLINERT, E.P. Sonic enhancement of two-dimensional graphics displays. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 447-470. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

BLY, S. Multivariate data mappings. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 405-416. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

BLY, S.A. Sound and Computer Information Presentation. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of California at Davis, Davis, California, USA, 1982.

BREWSTER, S.A. Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces. Bibliography. Thesis (Ph.D), University of York, UK, 1994.

EMERSON, T. Virtual Audio Bibliography. Technical report, Technical Report B-94-2, Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA, April 24, 1996.

EVANS, B., BARGAR, R. and SCALETTI, C. (Presenters) An Introduction to Data sonification. [New York, New York], Association for Computing Machinery, 1993. (Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. SIGGRAPH 1993. Course notes ; 81)

FLOWERS, J.H. and HAUER, T.A. The Ear's versus the eye's potential to assess characteristics of numeric data: are we too visuocentric? Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 24(2), May 1992,258-264.

FLOWERS, J.H., BUHMAN, D.C. and TURNAGE, K.D. Data sonification from the desktop: should sound be part of standard data analysis software?. In Proceedings of ICAD 96, International Conference on Auditory Display, November 4-6, 1996, Palo Alto, California, USA, [International Community for Auditory Display, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996?].

GAVER, W.W. Using and creating auditory icons. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 417-446. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

HEARST, M.A., ALBERS, M., BARRASS, S., BREWSTER, S. and MYNATT, E.D. Dissonance on audio interfaces. IEEE Expert: Intelligent Systems and Their Applications 12(5), September-October 1997,10-16.

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR AUDITORY DISPLAY. Auditory Display Citations.[Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display], April 27, 1998.

IVERSEN, W. The Sound of science. Computer Graphics World 15(1), January 1992,54-56,58,60-62.

KLEINER, M., DALENBÄCK, B.I. and SVENSSON, P. Auralization - an overview. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 41(1), November 1993,861-875.

KRAMER, G. An Introduction to auditory display. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 1-77. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

KRAMER, G. Some organizing principles for representing data with sound. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 185-221. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

LOMBARDI, V. Audio on The Internet, Web resource, May 5, 1998.

LUMBRERAS, M. and ROSSI, G. A Metaphor for the visually impaired: browsing information in a 3D auditory environment. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95 Conference Proceedings, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

MEREU, S.W. Improving Depth Perception in 3D Interfaces with Sound. Technical report, CSLI Research Report CS-95-35, Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA, August 1995.

PORTIGAL, S. Auralization of Document Structure. Thesis (M.S.), University of Guelph, 1994.

RAMAN, T.V. Auditory User Interfaces: Toward the Speaking Computer, Boston, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

RESSLER, S. and WANG, Q. Making VRML Accessible for People with Disabilities. In Proceedings of ASSETS '98, the Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, April 15-17, 1998, Marina del Rey, California, USA

STUART, R. Audio display from the simple beep to sonification and virtual auditory environments. In Understanding Images : Finding Meaning in Digital Imagery, Santa Clara, California, Springer-Verlag/TELOS, 1995, pp. 283-307.

WENZEL, E.M. Spatial sound and sonification. In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, Proceedings of ICAD'92, International International Conference on Auditory Display, Ocober 28-30, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe, New Mexico, International Community for Auditory Display, 1994, pp. 127-150. (Proceedings volume in the Sante Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity ; v. 18)

DAISY Consortium
The DAISY Consortium a worldwide coalition of libraries and institutions serving print disabled persons that is seeking to develop open standards, tools, and techniques for the next generation of 'digital talking books' (DTB)." The comprehensive system for the next generation of information to be delivered to blind and print disabled persons is called DAISY, Digital Audio-based Information SYstem.

International Community for Auditory Display (ICAD)
"ICAD is a forum for presenting research on the use of sound to display data, monitor systems, and provide enhanced user interfaces for computers and virtual reality systems. It is unique in its singular focus on auditory displays and the array of perception, technology, and application areas that this encompasses."

Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
The World Wide Web offers the promise of transforming many traditional barriers to information and interaction among different peoples. The [World Wide web Consorium's] commitment to lead the Web to its full potential includes promoting a high degree of usability for people with disabilities. The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), in coordination with other organizations, is pursuing accessibility of the Web through five primary areas of work: technology, guidelines, tools, education and outreach, and research and development."
The Next WAVe(sm): Auditory Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases is a clearinghouse of projects, research, products and services that describe or apply auditory interfaces, displays or interactive technologies to enhance use and access to Web and selected non-Web databases. Selected significant reports, papers, and articles are also provided for each profiled activity. The clearinghouse is arranged by the name of the university, corporation, or other organization with which the principal investigator of a project is currently, or was formerly, affiliated. A general bibliography of applicable works is also provided.
As time and opportunity permit, additional projects, research, products and services will be profiled within this collection.
The Next WAVe(sm) is compiled and maintained by Gerry McKiernan, A.B., M.S., Curator, CyberStacks(sm) and The Big Picture(sm): Visual Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, and Science and Technology Librarian, Science and Technology Department, Iowa State University Library.

February 16, 1998

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~CYBERSTACKS/Wave.htm

Marie Sets

Copyright Disclaimer