A Registry of Real-Time Digital Reference Services


livereference ELECTRONIC DISCUSSION LIST | Dig_Ref Listserv






Alliance Library System. Ready for Reference Virtual Reference Desk [Virtual Reference Software]

Auburn University Libraries. E-Gateway. InfoChat [LivePerson Chat]

Augustana College

Austin Community College. Learning Resources. Library Services. For Distance Learning. Select One: Real-Time Remote Reference Service [LivePerson Chat]

Austin Peay State University. Ask A Librarian. Ask A Librarian Live Chat Service [LiveAssistance]

Barnard College

Baruch College. William and Anita Newman Library. Ask A Librarian (Options for Reference Services). By Chat [LivePerson Chat]

Boston College [24/7 Reference]

Bowling Green State University. Libraries and Learning Resources. Reference Services. Ask-a-Librarian. Chat with a Librarian [Virtual Reference Software]

Bucknell University. Information Services and Resources. Research Tools. RefDesk Live [DesktopStreaming]

California Polytechnic State University Pomona. University Library. Ask NOW! [24/7 Reference]

California State University - Northridge [24/7 Reference]

Canisius College. Andrew L. Bouwhuis Library. Chat with a Librarian [AOL Instant Messenger(sm)]

Carnegie Mellon University. University Libraries. Ask a Librarian. Chat [LivePerson(sm) Chat]

Case Western Reserve University. University Library. Live Reference Help [LivePerson(sm) Chat

Cégep Vanier College. Library and Information Technology Centre. Live Library Reference [Livehelper(sm)]

Columbia University Libraries. Request It Online. Ask Us Now / Reference Chat@The Libraries [LiveAssistance]

Cornell University. Cornell University Library Gateway. LiveHelp [24/7 Reference]

Duke University Libraries. William R. Perkins Library. Reference Services. Live On Line Reference [Virtual Reference Software]

Eastern New Mexico. Golden Library. Extended Learning Library Services. Chat Reference Assistance [LivePerson Chat]

Eastern Tennessee State University Libraries. Extended Campus Services. How to Get Help. Live Online Chat with the Reference Librarian / Chat with Librarian [LiveAssistance]

Georgia Institute of Technology. Library and Information Center. Reference Department. Real Time Reference [AOL Instant Messenger(sm)]

Hampton University. William R. and Norma B. Harvey Library. Chat with Us Live / Live Assistant [LiveAssistance]

Illinois Institute of Technology. Paul V. Galvin Library. Ask a Librarian. Email and Chat Reference [LiveAssistance]

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Library. Real Time Reference Help [Virtual Reference Software]

Indiana Wesleyan University Indiana Wesleyan University Library. Off Campus Library Services. Questions? Click for Live Help [HumanClick(sm)]

Jönköping University Library. Ask the Librarian [LivePerson Chat]

Kansas State University Libraries. Ask a Librarian. Live Chat Reference [LiveAssistance]

Kingwood College / Kingwood College Library Online. Questions? Click Here for Live Help [HumanClick(sm)]

Liberty University. A. Pierre Guillermin Library. External Degree Library Services [AOL Instant Messenger (sm)]

Louisiana State University Libraries. Services. Ask a Librarian. LiveAssistance [LiveAssistance]

Macquarie University Library. As a Librarian (Online Reference Assistance). 2. Virtual Conferencing [NetMeeting]

Mansfield University. North Hall Library

Maricopa Community Colleges. Librarians Online [Virtual Reference Software]

Mary Washington College. James Monroe Center. Ask a Librarian. Live Assistance / Chat Live! [LiveAssistance]

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Libraries. Ask Us! Ask Us!-LIVE [Virtual Reference Software]

Miami University Libraries. MiamiLINK. Services & Information. Ask a Question. Live Online Assistance [Rakim]

Michigan State University Libraries. Virtual Reference Service. Netscape Chat Reference Service (SUSPENDED) [Netscape IRC]

New Jersy Institute of Technology. Robert Van Houten Library. Chat with a Reference Librarian [HumanClick(sm)

New York University

North Carolina State University Libraries. Ask a Librarian LIVE [Virtual Reference Software]

Northwestern University Library. Reference Department. Live Web Chat with a Librarian / Reference Librarian Online [Virtual Reference Software ]

Northwestern University of Louisiana. Eugene P. Watson Memorial. Library Chat []

Ohio State University Libraries.Education, Human Ecology, Psychology and Social Work Library. Chat With Us Live! [LiveAssistance]

Pace University Library. Research Assistance. Ask a Librarian. Chat Reference [OnDemand(tm)]

Pennsylvania State University Libraries. Virtual Reference Service / Ask a Penn State Librarian, LIVE! [Virtual Reference Software]

Pepperdine University Libraries

Philadelphia University. Paul J. Gutman Library. RefChat [Virtual Reference Librarian]

Plattsburgh State University. Library and Computing Services. Benjamin F. Feinberg Library. IREF PSU's Interactive Reference Service / Welcome To I-Ref [AOL Instant Messenger(sm)]

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Libraries and Information Services. RensSearch. Interactive HumanClick Reference Service [HumanClick(sm)]

Rocky Mountain College. Paul M. Adams Memorial Library. Live Assistance Now / Online Chat [LiveAssistance]

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Morris Library. Online Help/Online Reference [PERL/mySQL]

Spoon River College Learning Resource Center. Virtual "Quick Click" Information Desk [HumanClick(sm)]

State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville. Donald G. Butcher Library."Talk" To a Librarian [AOL Instant Messenger(sm)]

Syracuse University [24/7 Reference]

Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg. Some Questions (Sie haben noch Fragen)?. Options of Approach. By Live Chat [Rakim]

Temple University Libraries. Online Reference. Temple TalkNow [Camden]

Troy State University Libraries. Chat Live! Ask a Librarian [LiveAssistance]

University of Alberta [24/7 Reference]

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. The Libraries. Help Documentation. Express Links. Instant Message [AOL Instant Messenger(sm)]

University of California - Davis

University of California - Irvine Library. Library Services. Ask a Librarian. Ask a Librarian LIVE [24/7 Reference

University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA). Need Help? Ask a Librarian. Online[24/7 Reference]

University of Charleston (West Virginia). Schoenbaum Library. Questions? Click for Live Help [HumanClicksm)]

University of Chicago Library. Business and Economics Resource Center. Ask-a-Librarian Live [LiveAssistance]

University of Chicago Library. Josepth Regenstein Library. Regenstein Reference and Information Services. Ask a Librarian. ChatLive [LiveAssistance]

University of Colardo Health Sciences Center [24/7 Reference]

University of Florida. George A. Smathers Libraries. RefeXpress [eShare NetAgent(tm)]

University of Illinois at Chicago. University Library. Library of Health Sciences, Peoria. Questions? [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Library Gateway. Ask A Librarian (real time or e-mail). Real-Time Help [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Library Gateway. Libraries by Subject & Specialization. Slavic and Eastern European Library. Slavic Reference Service. Chat [WebCT Chat]

University of Leicester. University Library. Distance Learning Unit. Trial Chat Enquiry Service [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Leicester. University Library. Distance Learning Unit. Trial Chat Enquiry Service [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Louisville. University Libraries. Reference Services / Ask-a-Librarian. Ask-a-Librarian Chat [LiveAssistance]

University of Maryland Libraries. Engineering and Physical Sciences Library. Help from Librarians. Chat with a Librarian [LivePerson(sm) Chat]

Universitty of Maryland University College. Information and Library Services. Getting Help. Chat with a Librarian [LiveAssistance]

University of Michigan Business School. Kresge Business Administration Library. Ask Us. Contact Kresge Library. Kresge Virtual Reference [LiveAssistance]

University of Nevada, Reno. Reference Chat [HumanClick(sm)]

University of New Brunswick. UNB Libraries. LIVE [Virtual Reference Software]

University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Ask a Librarian. Chat [HumanClick(sm)]

University of North Texas Libraries. Online Reference Help Desk [ConferenceRoom]

University of Northern Iowa. Rod Library. Assistance. Reference. Reference & Instructional Services. Reference Assistance. Ask a Librarian. Ask a Librarian Live [LiveAssistance]

University of Pennsylvania Library. Lippincott Library of the Wharton School. Ask a Question!. Chat. Live Online Reference [LiveAssistance]

University of Pennsylvania Library. Van Pelt Library. Live Online Reference / Online Librarian [LiveAssistance]

University of Rochester Libraries. Ask a Librarian [LiveAssistance]

University of South Florida. Libraries. USF Virtual Library. Services. VL Reference Chat. Live Assistance [RightNow Live (tm)]

University of Southern California

University of Utah [24/7 Reference]

University of Virginia. Questions? Ask a Librarian [LivePerson(sm) Chat]

University of Washington [24/7 Reference]

University of Windsor. Leddy Library. Realtime Online Reference [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Winnipeg. Library & Information Services. Services. Live Help [HumanClick(sm)]

University of Wisconsin - Madison. Campus Libraries. Reference and Research Assistance. Instant Message Using Live Help. Libraries Live Help [OnDemand(tm)]

Virginia Commonwealth University. VCU Libraries. LiveHelp at VCU Libraries [HumanClick(sm)]

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Virginia Tech University Libraries. Online Reference. LiveRef [LivePerson(sm) Chat]

Washington State University [24/7 Reference


Library of Congress

U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Library. Ask a Librarian. Virtual Reference Service [Virtual Reference Software]

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Research Library. Ask a Librarian. Virtual Reference [Virtual Reference Software]


Alhambra Public Library. Live Reference Librarian. 24/7 Reference [24/7 Reference]

Baltimore County Public Library. Homework Help / Got Homework? AskUsNow! [Virtual Reference Software]

Biblioteksvagten - Danish LiveReference Service [HumanClick(sm)]

Denver Public Library. Find It Fast: SmartyPants. SmartyPants: 24/7 Online Reference at the Denver Public Library [Virtual Reference Software]

Harford County Public Library. Student Survival Kit. Live Virtual Reference Service / AskUsNow!

Hartford Public Library. Midnight Library. Interactive Reference / Live Chat with the Librarian [Livehelper(sm)]

Los Angles Public Library. Online Librarian Assistance. 24/7 Reference [24/7 Reference]

Malmö Stadsbibliotek. Bibliotekarie direkt [LivePerson(sm) Chat]

Montgomery Count Public Libraries. Ask-a-Librarian. Live Reference [LiveAssistance]

NOLA Regional Library System. [eShare NetAgent(tm)]

North Suburban Library System. Answers Unlimited: Ask a Librarian Live Online [Virtual Reference Software]

Santa Monica Public Library. Ask Me! 24/7 Reference [24/7 Reference]

St. Charles (Illinois) Public Library. Ask a Librarian-Live! [24/7 Reference]

St. Mary's Public Library. Live Reference Assistance / [LiveAssistance]

Suffolk County Cooperative Library System. Live Librarian [HumanClick(sm)]

Winter Park Public Library. Chat Live / Ask a Librarian | Chat with a Librarian [QuestionPoint(sm)]


Illinois CPA Society. Library / Resources. Business Research Library. Chat with a Librarian [LivePerson Chat]

Southbank Institute of TAFE. Library. Ask a Librarian [HumanClick(sm)]


AskERIC. Ask an ERIC Expert. AskERIC Live! / Chat with a Librarian [24/7 Reference]

Ask Now!: Online Answers Australia-wide [24/7 Reference] Chat med Bibliotekvakten [LivePerson Chat]

Collaborative Digital Reference Service (CDRS)

CLEVNET Library Consortium. KnowItNow [Virtual Reference Software]

Educational Information and Resource Center. Information Technology Services. Just in Time Support [Human Click(sm)]


Keystone Library Network. Virtual Information Desk. Live Chat [OnDemand(tm)]

Maricopa Community Colleges. Librarians Online [Virtual Reference Desk Software]

Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS). 24/7 Reference [24/7 Reference]

NOLA Regional Library System. [eShare NetAgent(tm)]

OhioLINK. Chat with a Librarian [Groopz(tm)]

OPAL Project (Online Personal Academic Librarian) The Bay Area Reference Project [Virtual Reference Software]

Seattle Virtual Libraries Consortium (Seattle Public Library). Ask A Question Information Service. LiveHelp: Your Personal Guide to a World of Information [QuestionPoint Enhanced Communications]

South Jersey Regional Library Cooperative. Q and A NJ [Virtual Reference Software]

State Library of Iowa [Virtual Reference Software]

The University Center Library. Click for Live Help [LivePerson(sm) Chat]


livereference ELECTRONIC DISCUSSION LIST | Dig_Ref Listserv


VID Knowledge Base 2000-2001 (Pennsylvania Inter-Library Online Library. Virtual Information Desk


Abram, Stephen. "Planning for the Next Wave of Convergence." Computers in Libraries 20, no. 4 (April 2000): 46-53. [Abstract]

Boretti, Elena. "Il Reference della Biblioteca Pubblica nella Società della Conoscenza." Bibliotime n.s., Anno IV, no, 1 (Marzo 2001).

Boyer, Joshua. "Virtual Reference at the NCSU Libraries: The First One Hundred Days." Information Technology and Libraries 20, no. 3 (September 2001): 122-128.

Breeding, Marshall. "Providing Virtual Reference Service." Information Today 18, no. 4 (April 1 2001): 42-43.

Broughton, Kelly. "Our Experiment in Online, Real-Time Reference." Computers in Libraries 21, no. 4 (April 2001): 26-31.

Cichanowicz, Edana M. "Sunday Night Live! - An Experiment in Real Time Reference Chat - on a Shoestring Budget." The Charleston Advisor 2, no. 4 (April 15 2001): 49-51.

Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffery. "Sunday Night Live! An Experiment in Live Reference Chat." NyLink Connection 3, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 8-9.

Coffman, Steve and Susan McGlamery. "The Librarian and Mr. Jeeves." American Libraries 31, no.5 (May 2000): 66-69.

Coffman, Steve and Matthew L. Saxton. "Staffing the Reference Desk in the Largely-Digital Library." Reference Librarian, no. 66 (1999): 141-163. [Abstract]

Colvin, Gloria. "Remote, Accessible, and On Call: Reference Librarians Go Live." Florida Libraries 44, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 10-12.

DeCandido, GraceAnne A. E-Reference: Closing in on 24/7. (PLA Tech Note).

Eichler, Linda and Michael Halperin. "LivePerson: Keeping Reference Alive and Clicking. Chat Technology for Reference Services at Lippincott Library." EContent 23, no. 3 (June/July 2000): 63-66.

Florida Distance Learning Reference & Referral Center. "Real Time Reference Using Chat: RRChat". Poster session presented at Libraries Build Community, the 2000 Annual Meeting of the American Library Association, July 18, 2000.

Folger, Kathleen M. "The Virtual Librarian: Using Desktop Videoconferencing to Provide Interactive Reference Assistance." In Choosing Our Futures: ACRL 1997 National Conference Papers. [Chicago, Ill.?]: ACRL, 1997.

Francoeur, Stephen. "An Analytical Survey of Chat Reference Services." Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 189-203.

Guscott, John. "Emerging Technologies That Will Change Public Libraries, Part 2. Positioning Your Library for Teleservice." Library Futures Quarterly 1, no. 3 (Summer 2001): 5,10.

Hinton, Danielle and Lou McGill. "Chat to a Librarian: 21st Century Reference for Distance Learners." Vine 122 (March 2001): 59-64. [Abstract]

Horn, Judy. "Association of College and Research Libraries 10th National Conference, Electronic Reference." Library Hi Tech News 18, no. 5 (June 2001): 31-32.

Horn, Judy. "The Future is Now: Reference Service for the Electronic Era." In Crossing the Divide: Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, March 15-18, 2001, Denver, Colorado. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2001.

Horn, Judy. "The Future is Now: Reference Service for the Electronic Era." Presentation delivered at Crossing the Divide: Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, March 15-18, 2001, Denver, Colorado.

Kenney, Brian. "Academic Libraries Test Web-Based Reference." Library Journal 126, no. 12 (July 2001): 25.

Khánh, Truong Phoc. "QandAcafe Pairs Internet Speed, Librarian Smarts.", March 18, 2001.

Kresh, Diane Nester. "Offering High Quality Reference Service on the Web: The Collaborative Digital Reference Service (CDRS)." D-Lib Magazine 6, no. 6 (June 2000).

Lessick, Susan, Kathryn Kjaer and Steve Clancy. "Interactive Reference Service (IRS) at UC Irvine: Expanding Reference Service Beyond the Reference Desk." In Choosing Our Futures: ACRL 1997 National Conference Papers. [Chicago, Ill.?]: ACRL, 1997.

Leveen, Thomas A. "Reference Librarians Chat It Up Online." Today's Librarian 4, no. 5 (May 2001): 17-19.

Lindell, Ann, Mimi Pappas, Jana Ronan, and Colleen Seale. "Shall We Chat? Extending Traditional Referenec Services with Internet Technology". Poster session presented at Libraries Build Community, the 2000 Annual Meeting of the American Library Association, July 2000.

Lipow, Anne G. "Serving the Remote User: Reference Service in the Digital Environment." In Information Online & On Disc '99: Proceedings of the Ninth Australasian Information Online and On Disc Conference and Exhibition, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Sydney Australia, 19-21 January 1999. Sydney, N.S.W.: Information Science Section, ALIA, 1999.

Lipow, Anne Grodzins."'In-Your-Face' Reference Service." Library Journal 124, no. 13 (August 1999): 50-52.

McGlamery, Susan and Steve Coffman. "Moving Reference to the Web." Reference & User Services Quarterly 39, no. 4 (2000): 380-386. [Abstract]

Meola, Marc and Sam Stormont. "Real-time Reference Service for the Remote User: From the Telephone and Electronic Mail to Internet Chat, Instant Messaging, and Collaborative Software [at Temple University]." The Reference Librarian, nos. 67/68 (1999): 29-40. [Abstract]

Morgan, Eric Lease. See You See A Librarian Final Report, August 30 1999 (December 10, 1996). [] 17 June 2001.

National Information Standards Organization. Report on the NISO Workshop on Networked Digital Reference Services, Held: April 25-26, 2001, Place: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.. [Bethesda, Maryland: NISO], c2001. Report.

Noreault, Terry, et al. Real-Time Reference for Undergraduate Students in Science, Mathematics and Engineering, 1999. Cooperative proposal submitted by the University of Arizona, Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Hawaii, Oregon State University, the University of Texas, and OCLC Online Computer Library Center to the National Science Foundation (NSF). Grant proposal. Not funded.

Oder, Norman. "The Shape of E-Reference." Library Journal 126, no. 2 (February 1, 2001): 46-50.

Patterson, Rory. "Live Virtual Reference: More Work and More Opportunity." Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 204-209.

Payne, Georgina and David Bradbury. "The OPAL Project: Developing An Automated Online Reference System For Distance Learners." D-Lib Magazine 7, no. 6 (June 2001).

Peters, Thomas A. "Current Opportunities for the Effective Meta-Assessment of Online Reference Services." Library Trends 49, no.2 (Fall 2000): 334-349.

Ronan, Jana Smith. "Virtual Reference, A Hot New Idea for Extending Services to Remote Users." LIRT News 23, no. 1 (September 2000): 8, 11.

Schneider, Karen G. "The Distributed Librarian: Live, Online, Real-Time Reference."American Libraries 31, no. 11 (November 2000): 64-65.

Shaw, Elizabeth. Real-Time Reference in a MOO: Promise and Problems, April 1996. Report. [] 17 June 2001.

Shires, J. Michael. High Touch vs. High Tech: The Changing Nature of Managing Library Reference Service, c2000. Web site prepared in partial fulfillment of degree requirements at the University of Alberta, School of Library and Information Studies. [] 17 June 2001.

Sloan, Bernie. Ready for Reference: Academic Libraries Offer Live Web-Based Reference. Preliminary Report (Revised for General Public Distribution), May 25, 2001. Project report. [] 11 July 2001.

Sloan, Bernie. Service Perspectives for the Digital Library: Remote Reference Services, December 16, 1997. Web site prepared for Collaboration in the Information Society (LIS 450 PHD), Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [] 17 June 2001.

Stemper, James A. and John T. Butler. "Developing a Model to Provide Digital Reference Services." Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 172-188.

Stormont, Sam. "Going Where the Users Are: Live Digital Reference." Information Technology and Libraries 20, no. 3 (September 2001): 129-134. [Abstract]

Tennant, Roy. "Digital Reference: Issues, Implications, & Impressions." Presentation delivered at Reference 24/7: High Touch or High Tech?, the 2000 RUSA [Reference and User Services Association, American Library Association] President's Program, July 10, 2000. A PowerPoint version is also available.

Tennant, Roy. "Human and Humane Assistance." Library Journal 124, no. 11 (June 15 1999): 30, 34.

Tenopir, Carol. "Virtual Reference Services in a Real World." Library Journal 126, no. 12 (July 2001): 38-40.

Tenopir, Carol and Lisa A. Ennis. "Reference Services in the New Millennium." Online 25, no. 4 (July 2001): 40-45.

Viles, Ann. The Virtual Reference Interview: Equivalencies. July 1999. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Discussion Group on Reference Work Report. A Report from the Meeting Held at the 65th IFLA General Conference, Bangkok, 23 August 1999.

White, Marilyn Domas. "Diffusion of an Innovation: Digital Reference Service in Carnegie Foundation Master's (Comprehensive) Academic Institution Libraries." Journal of Academic Librarianship 27, no. 3 (May 2001): 173-187.


ELITE Project (University of Leicester. University Library. Distance Learning Unit).

The Teaching Librarian. Digital Reference. Created and maintained by Stephen Francoeur, Information Services Librarian, William and Anita Newman Library, Baruch College, City University of New York.


Hadid, Peggy. Web-based Reference Services. Resources. A Web bibliography originally prepared to complement "Web-based Reference Services," a presentation delivered by Donna Reed and Rivkah Sass of the Multnomah County Library at Online Northwest 2000, Februray 4, 2000.

Sloan, Bernie. Digital Reference Services: A Bibliography. November 7, 2000. Graduate School of Library and Information Science. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Work-in-progress.

Wasik, Joan M. Digital Reference Resources. A Web bibliography originally published in Digital Reference Service in the New Millennium: Planning, Management, and Evaluation edited by David Lankes, John W. Collins III, and Abby S. Kasowitz (New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, c2000). Updated on a regular basis. Last update: April 4 2001.


California State University. CSU Council of Library Directors. Going Where the Students Are: A Symposium on Live Reference in the CSU, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, May 10-11, 2001. Program Summaries

Committee on Institutional Cooperation. Online Reference Services Workshop. University of Wisconsin, Madison, May 3-4, 2001 [Informal Workshop Notes prepared by Tom Peters, Director, Center for Library Initiatives, Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) ]

MARS Hot Topics Dicussion Group. "One More Cup of Coffee ...": After-Hours Chat Reference Service in Public and Academic Libraries, American Library Association, Mid-Winter Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 13, 2001. Forum Summary

National Information Standards Organization. Invitational Workshop on Networked Reference Services, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, April 25-26, 2001


Carnegie Mellon Libraries. Providing Chat Reference Service: A Survey of Current Practice

Duke University Libraries. Live On Line Reference. Evaluation

Pennsylvania Inter-Library Online Technology (PILOT). Virtual Information Desk. VID Survey

LiveRef(sm): A Registry of Real-Time Digital Reference Services is a categorized listing of libraries that offer real-time Library reference or information services using chat software, live interactive communications utilities, call center management software, customer interaction management software, Web contact center software, bulletin board services, interactive customer assistance system, or related Internet technologies. Use of the listed services may be restricted or limited to affiliated students, faculty, staff, or members.

LiveRef(sm) is compiled and maintained by Gerry McKiernan, Science and Technology Librarian and Bibliographer, Science and Technology Services Department, Iowa State University Library, Ames, IA 50011.

March 09 2003