A key objective of the OCLC Internet Cataloging Project was "to test and evaluate the efficacy of using USMARC format bibliographic records ... for remotely accessible electronic information objects." While most will agree that project participants succeeded in creating a database of acceptable USMARC format bibliographic records for selected remotely accessible electronic files using AACR2, others may question whether or not the labeled format (Fig. P-1),
Title/Author: The free on-line dictionary of computing [computer file] / Dennis Howe. Subjects Terms: Computers--Dictionaries. Microcomputers--Dictionaries. Summary: "FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecomms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing ... entries are cross-referenced to each other and to related resources elsewhere on the net ..." Electronic Access: Mode of Access: http Location: http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/ Computer System Details: System requirements: PC with modem. Mode of access: Internet World Wide Web. Address: http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/. Other Title: FOLDOC Other Access Points: Howe, Dennis. Publisher/Date: [England? : s.n.,] c1993- Class Number/Call Number: QA76.15; .H6 1994 004/.03 OCLC Number: 32671041
or the MARC format (Fig. P-2) are the most appropriate primary presentation formats for a collection of Internet resources.
000 cmm Ia 001 32671041 003 OCoLC 005 19000000003138.0 008 950619m19939999enkn d eng d 040 UOK $c UOK 050 4 QA76.15 $b .H6 1994 082 04 004/.03 $2 20 100 1 Howe, Dennis. 245 14 The free on-line dictionary of computing $h [computer file] / $c Dennis Howe. 246 3 FOLDOC 256 Computer data. 260 [England? : $b s.n.,] $c c1993- 538 System requirements: PC with modem. 538 Mode of access: Internet World Wide Web. Address: http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/. 500 Title from title screen. 500 "This dictionary started in 1985 and now contains 8611 definitions totalling 3.0 megabytes"--Modified ... May 18 ... 1995. 500 Includes searchable online index. 520 "FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecomms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing ... entries are cross-referenced to each other and to related resources elsewhere on the net ..." 650 0 Computers $x Dictionaries. 650 0 Microcomputers $x Dictionaries. 856 7 $2 http $u http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/
While all fields and their associated data are necessary to uniquely identify a resource or required for record manipulation within standard information storage and retrieval systems, all fields and all data need not be fully displayed nor displayed in either of these conventional formats as default options. Although catalogers and other librarians may consider all elements to be significant, end-users may not necessarily require all specialist-desired data to determine whether a specific resource will satisfy an information need.
System designers for the next phase of the OCLC Internet Cataloging Project, as well as others involved with system interfaces, should fully consider the observations, summaries, and recommendations of Hildreth in his excellent review article on online public access catalogs with graphical user interfaces (Hildreth, 1995). His series of critiques of bibliographic displays are particularly noteworthy and relevant to display options for future Internet catalogs:System designers, especially designers of user interfaces, must take into account the primary tasks to be performed with the system and the characteristics brought to the tasks by the users of the system. An understanding of these tasks and characteristics will inform the design of appropriate information search, presentation, review, selection, and related decision making facilities (Hildreth, 1995: 2.0).
The design of the full bibliographic record displays should be based on research-informed decisions made about data content, format, order of data elements, labeling, and typography. Data in the MARC record judged to be extraneous to the tasks at hand should be omitted from the displays. Considerations of both task and user characteristics must be included in the remaining aspects of the displays (Hildreth, 1995: 3.0).
Hildreth, Charles R. "The GUI OPAC: Approach with Caution." The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 6, no. 5 (1995): 1.0-6.0.
Individual papers on user-centered design and evaluation of digital libraries presented at the 1995 Allerton Institute of the University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, also offer insight into appropriate formats and forms for enhancing access by end-users to digital resources.