The Big Picture(sm):

Visual Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases

Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge that we have lost in information?"T.S. Eliot, The Rock (1934) pt.1

PROJECTS, RESEARCH, PRODUCTS and SERVICES

Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, California, USA

Product Name
HotSauce (ProjectX)
Contact
projectx@atg.apple.com
Product Summary
HotSauce "is a 3D information navigation system that allows users to effortlessly explore Internet or intranet websites and desktop content. The 3D interface greatly improves web navigation by making the structure of Web content immediately apparent to users."

Underlying this user interface is Meta Content Format technology (MCF), "an open standard (file) format used to represent a wide range of information about content." "As HTML is to the displayed page, MCF is to structured content." It describes information that can include "Web pages, gopher and ftp files, email, and structured databases, making their content available through a variety of views. MCF is both platform and application independent."

HotSauce is a plug-in currently available only for Macintosh and Windows 95 browsers.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://mcf.research.apple.com/hs/sites.html

http://mcf.research.apple.com/hs/screen_shot.html

References
Apple drives initiative to bring structured content to the Internet. Press release, Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, California, USA, September 18, 1996.

DEATHERAGE, M. HotSauce and Meta-Content Format. TidBITS 355, November 25, 1996.

HotSauce FAQ, FAQ, Apple Computer Inc., Cupertino, California, USA.

Welcome to HotSauce(sm) MCF: Fly Through the Internet with HotSauce, Product information, Apple Computer Inc., Cupertino ,California, USA.

GUHA, R.V. Meta Content Framework: A Whitepaper. Technical report, Draft, Apple Computer Inc., Cupertino, California, USA.

RUBIN, R.S. HotSauce lets users fly through the Web. MacWEEK Gateways 10(36), September 23, 1996.

Drexel University, College of Information Science and Technology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Project Name
SiteMap
Principal Investigators
Xia Lin (xlin@ukcc.uky.edu)
Project Summary
SiteMap is a Java application that visualizes a given Web site or a collection of links. Through a Web robot, "SiteMap first traverses every link of the Web site, collects statistical data, and indexes all the words and pages of the site. Based on the statistical data and the indexing, SiteMap converts each page of the site into a vector, and uses these vectors to train a neural network. As the outcome, the trained neural network presents the site in an organized map: subject areas are identified and labeled; their sizes and locations are determined by relationships among the subjects and by their occurrence and co-occurrence frequencies. Links are clustered and located within their respective subject areas, represented by colored dots."

"To help users interact with the [resulting] map, SiteMap provides various interactive tools. For example, areas can be labeled in more/less details through adjusting a scroll bar; links can be selected through clicking or dragging; contents of any selected links can be shown in a separate window, etc."

A Java-enabled browser is required to view the sample SiteMaps.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://lislin.gws.uky.edu/Sitemap/Sitemap.html

References

LIN, X. Map displays for information retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48(1), 1997, 40-54.

LIN, X. Self-Organizing Semantic Maps as Graphical Interfaces for Information Retrieval. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Maryland at College Park, 1993.

LIN, X. Searching and browsing on map displays. In ASIS '95, Proceedings of the 58th ASIS Annual Meeting, Converging Technologies: Forging New Partnerships in Information, October 9-12, 1995, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

LIN, X. Visualization for the document space. In Proceedings, Visualization '92, October 19-23, 1992, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

LIN, X., SOERGEL, D., and MARCHIONINI, G. A Self-organizing semantic map for information retrieval. In SIGIR '91: Proceedings of the Fourteeth Annual International ACM/SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, October 13-16, 1991, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Eastgate Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA

Product Name
Web Squirrel
Principal Investigator
Mark Bernstein (squirrel@eastgate.com)
Project Summary
Web Squirrel is a software tool that tracks and visualizes Internet and other electronic resources, notably Web URLs and e-mail. The Eastgate Web Squirrel creates information farms, a phrase coined by Cathy Marshall, Xerox PARC, and Frank Shipman of Texas A&M University, whose VIKI is an important influence on the design of Web Squirrel.
Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.eastgate.com/squirrel/Farms.html
References
Eastgate Web Squirrel FAQs, FAQ, Eastgate Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachuestts, USA.

BERNSTEIN, M. Enactment in Information Farming. In Hypertext'93, the Fifth ACM Conference on Hypertext : Proceedings, November 14-18,1993, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Computing, Graphics, Visualization & Usability Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Project Name
Navigation View Builder
Principal Investigator
Sougata Mukherjea (sougata@cc.gatech.edu)
Project Summary
The Navigational View Builder is "a tool which allows the user to interactively create useful visualizations of the information space. It uses four strategies to form effective views. These are binding, clustering, filtering and hierarchization. These strategies use a combination of structural and content analysis of the underlying space for forming the visualizations."
Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/people/Phd/sougata/Nvb.html
References
MUKHERJEA, S. Visualizing the Information Space of Hypermedia Systems. Thesis (Ph.D.), Georgia Institute of Technology, 1996.

MUKHERJEA, S. and FOLEY, J.D. Visualizing the World-Wide Web with the Navigational View Builder. Paper presented at Technology, Tools and Applications, The Third International World Wide Web Conference, April 10-14, 1995, Darmstadt, Germany. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 27, 1995,1075-1087.

MUKHERJEA, S., FOLEY, J.D. and HUDSON, S. Visualizing complex hypermedia networks through multiple hierarchical views. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95 Conference Proceedings, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

German National Research Center for Information Technology GmbH, Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Content-based, User-oriented information Interfaces Division, Visual Interaction Tools Department, Darmstadt, Germany

Project Name
LyberWorld
Principal Investigator
Matthias Hemmje (hemmje@darmstadt.gmd.de)
Project Summary
...[T]he objective of the LyberWorld research project ... [is] to develop novel, intuitively usable visual user interfaces, which significantly reduce the cognitive load of the user when working with database and information retrieval systems."

"In an experimental application prototype, the probabilistic information retrieval system INQUERY has been enhanced with such an interface. The resulting visual information system is currently running with several full-text databases. CORDIS publication database contains 800 ... abstracts of scientific publications and project descriptions of European research projects."

"The visualization user interface is designed on the basis of several agent based tools for the three-dimensional graphical visualizations of the retrieved/stored information structures and the information dialogue itself. It provides users with intuitive control over their present search state, relevance of retrieved information items and potential further steps at any stage of the visual information dialogue. Therefore users are continuously in control of their 'positions' in the searched information 'space'."

"For reaching this goal the content space of the database/the retrieval session has to be visualized. This is done by means of Search Trees, Relevance Speres and Terminology Surfaces. The content space of a visualized fulltext database contains term items and document items. They can easily be distinguished because of their different colours (blue and red respectively). By maneuvring through the visualized content relations, users can search through all potentially relevant text documents without having to read them completely or to contrive search terms of their own. After gathering all potentially interesting documents in the Search Tree, the Relevance Sphere visualization is used to visually cluster information spaces and to determine the set of most relevant documents, i.e. the result kernel of the search."

The LyberWorld INQUERY based "retrieval mechanism will be updated with an integrated HTML parsing functionalty to enable the prototype to become a complete visual Webreader."

The relevance sphere and the spiral tree have been ported from SGI-only versions to Windows 95 and Windows NT environments. These are currently being converted into an Active-X-Control that will support VRML export and plans call for this functionality to be available in Fall 1998.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www-cui.darmstadt.gmd.de/visit/People/hemmje/Activities/Lyberworld/

References
HEMMJE, M. LyberWorld - A 3D graphical user interface for fulltext retrieval. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95 Conference Proceedings, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

HEMMJE, M., KUNKEL, C., and WILLETT, A. LyberWorld - A visualization user interface supporting fulltext retrieval. In SIGIR'94: Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual International ACM-SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, July 3-6, 1994, Dublin, Ireland.

Helsinki University of Technology, Neural Networks Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

Project Name
WEBSOM: Self-Organizing Map for Internet Exploration
Principal Investigator
Teuvo Kohonen (websom@websom.hut.fi)
Project Summary
WEBSOM is a means for organizing miscellaneous text documents into meaningful maps for exploration and search. WEBSOM is based on SOM (Self-Organizing Map) that automatically organizes documents into a two-dimensional grid so that related documents appear close to each other.

The Self-Organizing Map (SOM), developed by Kohonen and colleagues at the Helsinki University of Technology, "is a general unsupervised learning algorithm for analyzing and visualizing high-dimensional statistical data." "It is one of the most widespread artificial neural network models used in application areas such as process monitoring, image analysis, telecommunications, and categorization of economic data."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://websom.hut.fi/websom/

http://websom.hut.fi/websom/comp.ai.neural-nets-new/html/root.html

References
Bibliography on the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). Bibliography. Prepared and maintained by the Neural Networks Research Centre, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.

HONKELA, T., KASKI, S., LAGUS, K. and KOHONEN, T. Newsgroup Exploration with WEBSOM Method and Browsing Interface. Technical report, Technical Report A32, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland, USA. January 1996.

HONKELA, T., KASKI, S., LAGUS, K. and KOHONEN, T. Self-organizing maps of document collections. alma 2, 1996.

KOHONEN, T. The self-organizing map. Proceedings of the IEEE 78(9): 1464-1480.

KOHONEN, T. Self-Organizing Maps. Springer, Berlin, 1995. (Springer series in Information Sciences 30).

KOHONEN, T., HYNNINEN, J., KANGAS, J. and LAAKSONEN, J.. SOM_PAK: The Self-Organizing Map Program Package. Version 3.1 (April 7, 1995). Computer software, Technical Report A31, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland.

LAGUS, K., HONKELA, KASKI, S., and KOHONEN, T. Self-organizing maps of document collections: a new appraoch to interactive exploration. In KDD-96, Proceedings, Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, August 2-4, 1996, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996.

Inxight Software, Inc, Palo Alto, California, USA

Product/Service Name
Information Visualization Technologies
Principal
InXight Software, Inc. (info@inxight.com)
Product Summary
This site profiles three information visualization technologies developed and refined at the Xerox PARC research centers and describes potential commercial applications.
Demonstration or Prototype Access
Hyperbolic Tree(tm)

VizControls(tm)

References
CARD, S.K., ROBERTSON, G.G., and MACKINLAY, J.D. The Information Visualizer: an information workspace. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Reaching Through Technology: CHI'91 Conference Proceedings, April 27-May 2, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

LAMPING, J., RAO, R. and PIROLLI, P. A focus+context technique based on hyperbolic geometry for visualizing large hierarchies. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95 Conference Proceedings, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

MACKINLAY, J.D. ROBERTSON, G.G. and CARD, S.K. The Perspective Wall: detail and context smoothly integrated. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Reaching Through Technology: CHI'91 Conference Proceedings, April 27-May 2, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

RAO, R. From research to real world with Z-GUI. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17(4), July/August 1997, 71-73

MicroSoft(tm) Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA

Product
SiteServer
Contact
MicroSoft Offices Worldwide (http://www.microsoft.com/worldwide/)
Product Summary
"Microsoft(tm) SiteServer provides a comprehensive set of server features and management tools that enable you to rapidly develop and deploy Web content, deliver personalized content, manage site consistency and integrity, and analyze usage patterns to continuously improve the site based on visitor behavior and changing business requirements."

SiteServer includes two site management tools, Usage Analyst and Site Analyst. Site Analyst is based in NetCarta's WebMapper which provides for the creation of a visual map of a Web site by presentation as a Cyberbolic View, a hyberbolic visualization technique.

SiteServer also includes a web-mapping function through its WebMap feature, a function that "provides a visual representation of a site that can be used for navigation, site analysis, and site maintenance."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://cnet.com/Content/Reviews/JustIn/Screenshots/0,119,167-1-0-0,00.html

References
MicroSoft(tm) SiteServer, Site Analyst Technical Details, Product Information, MicroSoft(tm) Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA.

MITRE Corporation, USA

Project Name
Hyperspace View
Principal Investigator
Nahum Gershon (gershon@mitre.org)
Project Summary
Hyperspace View is an enhancement to NCSA Mosaic that enables users to view resources linked within a Web site as a visual 'tree' structure and to "modify visually and interactively the links among [Web] documents and images using a point-click-and-drag operation on the display of the hyperlink hierarchical structure. This enhancement allows the user to effectively generate new, personalized links and to (visually) view the new and 'old' information globally and locally." " The new hyperlinks are stored at the end of the documents ...".
References
GERSHON, N., WINSTEAD, J., LEVASSEUR, J., CROALL, J., PERNICK, A. and RUH, W. Visualizing World Wide Web information resources. Paper presented at CIKM'95 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation, December 2, 1995, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

GERSHON, N., LEVASSEUR, J., WINSTEAD, J., CROALL, J., PERNICK, A. and RUH, W. Case Study: Visualizing Internet resources. In Proceedings, Information Visualization, October 30-31, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, c1995.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Information Technology Department, Richland, Washington, USA

Project Name
SPIRE(tm) (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration)
Principal Investigator
James J. Thomas (jj_thomas@pnl.gov)
Project Summary
SPIRE" allows users to explore complex relationships between text documents. A collection of visual and interaction tools, SPIRE graphically displays images based on word similarities and themes in text. No prior knowledge of the information or selection of themes or topics is required. SPIRE creates its visualizations by processing these similarities into the key topic and themes and organizing the data into visual representations that allow the user to explore and discover relationships between text documents."

"Two technologies within SPIRE, Galaxies and Themescape, provide natural visual metaphors requiring little training to use. Galaxies computes word similarities and patterns in documents and then displays the documents on a computer screen to look like a universe of "docustars." Closely related documents will cluster together in a tight group while unrelated documents will be separated by large spaces. In Themescape, themes within the document spaces appear on the computer screen as a relief map of natural terrain. The mountains in Themescape indicate where themes are dominant; valleys indicate weak themes. Their shapes--a broad butte or high pinnacle--reflect how the thematic information is distributed and related across documents. Themes close in content will be close visually based on the many relationships within the text spaces."

Demonstration or Prototype Access

http://multimedia.pnl.gov:2080/showcase/pachelbel.cgi?it_content/spire.node

References
THOMAS, J.J. Information visualization: beyond traditional engineering. Paper presented at the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments, April 26-27, 1995, Hampton, Virginia, USA. In Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1995. (NASA Conference publication 3320).

WISE, J.A., J.R., THOMAS, J.J., PENNOCK, K., LANTRIP, D., POTTIER, M., SCHUR, A. and CROW, V. Visualizing the non-visual: spatial analysis and interaction with information from text documents. In Proceedings, Information Visualization, October 30-31, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, c1995.

Silicon Graphics Inc., Mountain View, California, USA

Project Name
fsn
Principal Investigator
Joel Tesler (joel@jellotrees.esd.sgi.com)
Project Summary
"fsn (pronounced 'fusion') is a file system navigator in cyberspace. It lays out the directorys in a hierarchy with each directory represented by a pedestal. The height of the pedestal is proportional to the size of the files in the directory. The directories are connected by wires, on which it is possible to travel. On top of each directory are boxes representing individual files. The height of the box represents the size of the file, while the color represents the age".

"fsn is intended as an investigation in information landscape navigation. Although the file system was chosen as a system to navigate through, similar paradigms could be applied to other trees and graphs, such as call graphs."

"fsn is a prototype and an experiment. It is neither a full featured product nor a replacmeent for [other] file system manager[s]...".

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.sgi.com/Fun/free/cool_sw_01.html
References
ROGERS, B., CUNNINGHAM, S., and HOLMES, G. Navigating the Virtual Library: A 3D Browsing Interface for Information Retrieval. Working paper, Work paper 94/10, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 1994.

TESLER, J. and STRASNICK, S. FSN: The 3D File System Navigator Technical report, Silicon Graphics, Inc., Mountain View, California, 1992.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Computer Science Department, Computer Graphics Laboratory, Lausanne, Switzerland

Project Name
BED (Bookmarks Exploring Dabbler)
Principal Investigator
Serge Rezzonico (rezzoni@lig.di.epfl.ch)
Project Summary
BED (Bookmarks Exploring Dabbler) is a prototype 3D bookmarks generator using VRML. The "generator reads a Netcape bookmarks file, parses it and generates a VRML file. A VRML browser can be used to visualize the scene and navigate through it."

"The 3D generator works best on bookmarks organized with menus, as opposed to the case where one has a long flat list of URLs. ... Submenus are also supported, with the limitation that starting from the third level of submenus they are all considered at the same level. It is advisable not to have one single submenu with many other submenus in it; instead, it is better to have different submenus directly in the main menu."

Demonstration or Prototype Access

http://ligwww.epfl.ch/~rezzoni/VG/tform.html

References
REZZONICO, S. and THALMANN, D. Browsing 3D bookmarks in BED. In WebNet96 Proceedings Online, October 15-19, 1996, San Francisco, California, USA

Technical University of Clausthal, Institute for Process and Production Control Techniques, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

Project Name
Vineta
Principal Investigator
Uwe Krohn (krohn@ipp.tu-clausthal.de)
Project Summary
"Vineta is a system prototype allowing navigation through bibliographic data without typing and revising keyword-based queries. [Its] approach to visualising documents and terms in navigational retrieval includes the representation of documents and terms as graphical objects, and dynamic positioning of these objects in the 3D navigational space. Users can navigate through this virtual navigation space examing individual documents and clusters at various levels of detail."
References
KROHN, U. VINETA: Navigation through virtual information spaces. Paper presented at AVI '96, Advanced Visual Interfaces: An International Workshop, May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy.

KROHN, U. Vineta: visualizing navigational information retrieval. Paper presented at FADIVA 2, the Second International Workshop on Foundations of Advanced 3D Information Visualization, July 20-22, 1995, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

KROHN, U. Visualization of navigation retrieval in virtual information spaces. Paper presented at CIKM'95 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation, December 2, 1995, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

University of Arizona, Karl Eller Graduate School of Management, Management Information Systems, Tucson , Arizona, USA

Project Name
EntertainmentSpace (ET-Space)
Principal Investigator
Hsinchun Chen (hchen@bpa.arizona.edu)
Project Summary
"EntertainmentSpace is a set of concept-based search tool developed by the Artificial Intelligence Group in the Management Information Systems Department at the University of Arizona."

ET-SPACE "contains a clickable self-organizing map (SOM) and a searchable entertainment concept space (thesaurus) both generated automatically using [a] DEC Alpha workstation. Users can use this server to identify specific areas in Entertainment and/or other relevant search terms when searching Entertainment servers or homepages."

Funded mainly by an NSF/CISE "Intelligent Internet Categorization and Search" project (1995-1998) and the NSF/ARPA/NASA Illinois Digital Library Initiative project (1994-1998).

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://ai.bpa.arizona.edu/Libraries/frame1_demos_1.html
References
CHEN, H, SCHUFFELS, C. and ORWIG, R. Internet categorization and search: a self-organizing approach. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 7(1), 1996,88-102.

CHEN, H, HOUSTON, A.L., SEWELL, R.R. and SCHATZ, B.R.. Internet browsing and searching: user evaluation of category map and concept space techniques. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49(7), May 1998,582-603.

University of Birmingham, School of Computing Science, Birmingham, UK

Project Name
HyperSpace

Narcissus

Principal Investigators
Robert J. Hendley (R.J.Hendley@cs.bham.ac.uk)

Nicholas S. Drew (N.S.Drew@cs.bham.ac.uk)

Andrew M. Wood (A.M.Wood@cs.bham.ac.uk)

Project Summary
Narcissus uses ... "self-organising systems and virtual reality to generate visualisations through which users can navigate and manipulate objects in the visualisation. The system is implemented as a process which communicates with applications (e.g. Web browsers and programming environments) using KQML," and provides a degree of application independence which permits it to work concurrently with several, possibily heterogeneous applications, facilitating collaborative work among users.

"The current model is loosely based upon physical systems with rules defining forces that act between the objects. These forces cause the objects to move in space." In the running model, objects migrate through space so that they are spatially close to other objects with which they are semantically related.

"The user can determine which relationships are active within the model and hence which relationships will be responsible for generating attractive forces between objects," and can also select individual objects and classes of objects which should be visible. The system can draw arcs to indicate relationships between objects and label objects with their attributes (e.g. URL).

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~nsd/
References
DREW, N.S. and HENDLEY, R.J. Visualising complex interacting systems. Presentation prepared for Human Factors in Computing Systems: Mosaic of Creativity: CHI'95, May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado, USA.

HENDLEY, B. and DREW, N. Visualisation of complex systems. Presentation prepared for HCI'95: People & Computers, August 29 - September 1, 1995, University of Huddersfield, UK.

HENDLEY, R.J., DREW, N.S., WOOD, A.M. and BEALE, R. Narcissus: visualising information. In Proceedings, Information Visualization, October 30-31, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, c1995.

WOOD, A., DREW, N., BEALE, R. and HENDLEY, B. HyperSpace: Web browsing with visualisation. Poster presented at Technology, Tools and Applications, the Third International World Wide Web Conference, April 10-14, 1995, Darmstadt, Germany.

University of Minnesota, Academic and Distributed Computing Services, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Project Name
GODOT (GopherVR Organized Directories of Titles)
Principal Investigators
Neophytos Iacovou (iacovou@boombox.micro.umn.edu)

Mark P. McCahill (mpm@boombox.micro.umn.edu)

Project Summary
"GODOT (Gopher VR Organized Directories of Titles is a tool that creates spatial organization of an author's works. Using an ISO Z39.50-1994 client to connect to remote library catalogs, GODOT extracts an author's work in the form of USMARC bibliographic records." It then proceeds to format and classify the MARC records, creating an organization which can be browsed and searched. Users can explore the works of an author using both Gopher and Gopher VR clients. A Gopher client provides linear lists, while GopherVR visualizes the relationship and structure within these lists.
Demonstration or Prototype Access
gopher://boombox.micro.umn.edu:70/00/gopher/Unix/Godot/GODOT%20v0.1

References

MCCAHILL, M.P. and ERICKSON, T. Design of a 3D spatial user interface for Internet Gopher. In Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 1995, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 95-World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, June 17-21, 1995, Graz, Austria.

IACOVOU, N. and McCahill, M.P.GODOT: GopherVR Organized Directories of Titles. Paper presented at CIKM'95 Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Visualization and Manipulation, December 2, 1995, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

University of Nottingham, Department of Computer Science, Communications Research Group, Nottingham, UK

Project Name
Internet Foyer
Principal Investigators
Steven D. Benford (sdb@cs.nott.ac.uk)
Project Summary
"The Internet Foyer is an example of a mixed reality - an electronic meeting space which spans the physical and virtual worlds. The Internet Foyer involves the use of Collaborative Virtual Environment technology to create a navigable and populated 3-D visualisation of an organisation's WWW home pages."

"Using collaborative virtual reality software, people can enter a specific Internet Foyer from anywhere over the Internet. Once inside, they can navigate the 3-D visualisation, selecting pages of interest. They are also made aware of the presence of other VR users and are able to communicate with them using live audio links in much the same way as they would be if they encountered them in a normal foyer in a physical buidling. In addition, they are made aware of the presence of users of more traditional 2-D (i.e. dimensionally challenged) WWW browsers who happen to be wandering over these particular WWW pages at the time."

"To complete the Internet Foyer, this visualisation is then projected onto the wall of a physical foyer in a real building while, simultaneously, a real-time video image from the physcial foyer is texture mapped back into the visualisation. This allows visitors to the virtual and physical foyers to communicate with one another."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/research/projects/Foyer/#functionality
References
BENFORD, S., BROWN, C., REYNARD, G.and GREENHALGH, C. Shared spaces: transportation, artificiality, and spatiality. In CSCW'96, Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, November 16-20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

BENFORD, S., BROWN, C., REYNARD, G.and SNOWDON, D. The Internet Foyer. Paper presented at the Third Conference of the UK VRSIG, July 1996, DeMontford University, England, UK.

University of Nottingham, Department of Computer Science, Communications Research Group, Nottingham, UK

Project Name
VR-VIBE
Principal Investigators
Steven D. Benford (sdb@cs.nott.ac.uk)
Project Summary
VR-VIBE extends the VIBE approach [developed by Robert R. Korfhage and students and colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh] into three dimensions and creates visualizations of bibliographies. Users specify keywords that they wish to use to generate the visualization and place these keywords in 3D-space. Representations of the documents are then displayed in the space according to how relevant each document is to each of the keywords ... . The position of a document depends on the relative importance of each of the keywords to it; thus a document equally spaced between two keywords is equally relevant to both, while a document close to a particular keyword is relevant to that keyword only. Absolute relevance is depicted by the colour of the documents representation, the more relevance the document, the brighter the colour - this is necessary to distinguish between documents that are equally only slightly relevant from documents which are highly relevant but are placed in the position because the proportion of their relevance to each keyword is the same."

"VR-VIBE is a a virtual reality application ... intended to support the co-operative browsing and filtering of large document stores."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/crg/Research/pits/vrvibe/

References
BENFORD, S., SNOWDON, D., GREENHALGH, C., INGRAM, R., KNOX, I and BROWN, C. VR-VIBE: A virtual environment for co-operative information retrieval. Paper presented at Eurographics '95, the Sixteenth Annual Conference and Exhibition of The European Association for Computer Graphics,, August 28-September 1, 1995, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Computer Graphics Forum 14(3) (Conference issue), 1995, C/349-360.

Populated Information Terrains, Technical report, Communications Research Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghman, England, UK.

SNOWDON, D., BENFORD, S., BROWN, R., INGRAM, R., KNOX, I., and STUDLEY, L. Information visualization, browsing amd sharing in Populated Information Terrains. Paper presented at New Directions in Software Development: The World Wide Web, March 1995, the University of Wolverhampton, England, UK.

University of Nottingham, Department of Computer Science, Communications Research Group, Nottingham, UK

Project Name
WWW3D
Principal Investigators
David Snowdon (d.snowdon@cs.nott.ac.uk)
Project Summary

WWW3D is "a novel browser that provides a single 3D display which integrates the display of the Web documents themselves, the structure of the part of the web that the user has browsed and history information showing the links the user has followed in the recent past."

"WWW3D uses the information contained in HTML tags to produce a representation of the document in 3D space. A web document is represented as a sphere which is labelled with the document's title. The contents of the document is placed around the inside surface of the sphere. Displaying large amounts of text in a satisfactory way is difficult in current VR systems so textual information is currently represented by icons that can be unfolded to reveal the entire text. The first few words of the piece of text are displayed under the icon to give some indication of the contents. Images are displayed by texture mapping them onto polygons on the inside surface of the sphere. Finally, links to other documents are represented as icons labelled with their destination."

"To reduce the visual complexity of the virtual environment WWW3D makes extensive use of Level of Detail(LOD) operations. When viewed from outside a document is represented as an opaque sphere and the actual document contents is not displayed. When a user enter's a document to view it the sphere is drawn in wireframe so that the rest of the virtual environment is still visible". "WWW3D is implemented in DIVE and supports multiple concurrent users who are visible to each other and who may either be browsing the the same or different sets of Web documents."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/~dns/vr/www3d/www3d9-small.gif

http://www.crg.cs.nott.ac.uk/~dns/vr/www3d/www3d1-small.gif

References
SNOWDON, D., FAHLÉN, L., and STENIUS, M. WWW3D: A 3D multi-user Web browser. In WebNet96 Proceedings Online, October 15-19, 1996, San Francisco, California, USA.

HAGSAND, O. Interactive Multiuser VEs in the DIVE System. IEEE Multimedia 3(1), 1996, 30-39.

University of Texas - Pan American, Department of Computer Science, Edinburg, Texas USA

Project Name
Document Explorer
Principal
Richard H. Fowler (fowler@panam.edu)
Product Summary
"The Document Explorer provides head-coupled stereoscopic viewing of 3D visual representations for document collections, associative term thesauri, and individual documents. This style of interface has been called 'fish tank VR' and shown to be relatively effective for 3D viewing and interaction tasks. The system also provides mechanisms to integrate query formulation across the visual representations."

"The Document Explorer employs context extraction, visualization, and interaction tools to supply a 3D interface to text-based semantic structures. The goals of the system have centered on providing user-manipulable visualization structures and facile 3D interaction techniques for use in the highly interactive process of information seeking. The figure above shows a screen display of a structure formed from document relationships."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.cs.panam.edu/info_vis/sigir95.html
References
FOWLER, R.H., FOWLER, W.A.L., and WILLIAMS, J. L. Document Explorer Visualizations of WWW Document and Term Spaces, Technical report, CS-96-6, University of Texas - Panamerican, Department of Computer Science, Edinburg, Texas, USA, 1996.

FOWLER, R.H., FOWLER, W.A.L., and WILLIAMS, J. L. 3D visualization of WWW semantic content for browsing and query formulation. In WebNet96 Proceedings Online, October 15-19, 1996, San Francisco, California, USA.

FOWLER, R.H., KUMAR, A. and WILLIAMS, J. L. Visualizing and browsing WWW semantic content. In Proceedings, the First Conference on Emerging Technologies and Applications in Communications, May 7-10, 1996, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, California, USA

Product/Service Name
WebBook(tm)

WebForager(tm)

Principal Investigator
Stuart K. Card (card@parc.xerox.com)
Product Summary
"Current Web servers and browsers focus attention at the link and page levels. These levels are too low to represent gracefully some higher-level structures, resulting in many more entities in the Web space than are necessary and hence to orientation and sensemaking problems." WebBook(tm), is a "3D interactive book of HTML pages. The WebBook(tm) allows rapid interaction with objects at a higher level of aggregation than pages." Web Forager(tm) is "an application that embeds the WebBook(tm) and other objects in a hierarchical 3D workspace.

"Given a collection of web pages, it preloads those pages and displays them as a collection using an augmented simulation of a physical book. 3D graphics and interactive animation are used to give the user a clear indication of the relationship between the pages of the book. Each page of the WebBook(tm) is a page from the Web. Links are color coded so the user can easily tell the difference between a reference to another page in the book (red links) and a reference outside the book (blue links). Picking a red link will animate the flipping of pages to the desired page. Picking a blue link will close the current WebBook(tm) and look for the page elsewhere. If the page is in another WebBook(tm) stored on a bookshelf, that WebBook(tm) is opened to the desired page."

"The WebBook(tm) provides a representation of a more aggregate Web entity above the page and allows rapid local interaction with it. The Web Forager(tm) allows interaction with multiples of such entities and allows for the necessary tradeoffs among fast access, number of entities, and screen space."

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Card/skc1fg2.jpg

http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Card/skc1fg3.jpg

References
CARD, S.K., ROBERTSON, G.G. and YORK, W. The WebBook and the Web Forager: an information workspace for the World-Wide Web. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground: CHI'96 Conference Proceedings, April 13-16, 1996, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

CARD, S.K., ROBERTSON, G.G. and YORK, W. The WebBook and the WebForager: video use scenarios for a World-Wide Web information workspace. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground: CHI'96 Conference Proceedings, April 13-16, 1996, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Yahoo! Corporation, Santa Clara, California, USA

Product Name
Yahoo! 3D
Principal
Yahoo! Corporation (info@yahoo.com)
Product Summary
Yahoo! 3D is Yahoo's VRML-based virtual world. Yahoo! 3D allows one to explore more than a dozen main Yahoo! categories, or 'worlds' in three-dimensional space, interacting with objects rather than text, using three-dimensional space to organize these various subject groups.

Note: Worlds vary in size 100K to 200K, and all are compressed. It is best to use Yahoo! 3D with an ISDN level connection, or higher. Each world is compressed and needs to be decompressed by the browser. Users with modems will experience significant download times. Navigation through the worlds may be sluggish on slower processors with low memory availability.

Yahoo 3D! includes over 450 objects within its current. collection. Arts, Education, Government, Health, News, Recreation and Sports, and Science, are among the major Yahoo categories represented. Several pre-defined options are active, most notably 'Walk', 'Spin', 'Look', and 'Slide' for navigating Yahoo! 3D.

Yahoo! 3D requires browser support for Live3D and uses the VRML modeling tool developed by Caligari Corporation.

Demonstration or Prototype Access
http://3d.yahoo.com/3d/yahoo3d.html
References
SEMINERIO, M. Yahoo to debut 3-D search engine powered by Caligari software. PCWEEK ONLINE, October 25, 1996.

Yahoo! and Caligari Corporation announce Yahoo! 3D. Press release, Yahoo! Corporation, Santa Clara, California, USA, October 28, 1996.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

BANK, D. Sofware firms look outside Windows to handle data. Wall Street Journal, June 27, 1997, B4.

BROWN, C., BENFORD, S. and SNOWDON, D. Collaborative visualization of large-scale hyermedia databases. In CSCW and the Web - Proceedings of the 5th ERCIM/W4G Workshop. Arbeitspapiere der GMD 984, GMD, Sankt Augustin, April 1996.

CARD. S.K. Visualizing retrieved information: a survey. IEEE Computer Graphics and Application 16(2), 1996,63-67.

COCHRANE, P.A. and JOHNSON, E.H., et al. 34th Annual UIUC clinic highlights visualizing subject access. Library hi-tech news 142, 1997,1-8, 10.

DAVIS, R. Internet visualization technologies: old metaphors are new, user studies hold true. Paper prepared for LIS5990, Internet Information Services, University of Oklahoma, May 10, 1997.

EARNSHAW, R.A. and VINCE, J. The Internet in 3D: Information, Images and Interaction. San Diego, Academic Press, 1997.

FAIRCHILD, K.M. Information Visualization. Technical report, Institute of Systems Sciences, National University of Singapore, February 7, 1996.

FOX, D. Graphical Elements for Information Browsing Systems. Survey paper. Submitted in partial fulfillment for Ph.D., New York University, Department of Computer Science, 1994?.

GERSHON, N. Moving happily through the World Wide Web. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 16(2), 1996,72-75.

GERSHON, N. and BROWN, J.R. The Role of computer graphics and visualization in the GII. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 16(2), 1996,61-63.

GERSHON, N. and EICK, S.G. Visualizations's new track: making sense of information. IEEE Spectrum 32(11), 1995,38-40,42, 44-47, 55-56.

MCKIERNAN, G. Hand-made in Iowa: organizing the Web along the Lincoln Highway. D-Lib Magazine, February 1997.

MCKIERNAN, G. Information visualisation: the World Wide Web gets really graphical. Intelligence, Special Issue, 1997 Guide to the Internet, December 1996,116-118.

MCKIERNAN, G. Seeing is believing: visual browsing for Information Retrieval. Demonstration and Discussion. Presented at Visualizing Subject Access for 21st Century Information Resources, the Thirty-fourth Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, March 2-4, 1997, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

MUKHERJEA, S. Visualizing the Information Space of Hypermedia Systems. Thesis (Ph.D.), Georgia Institute of Technology, 1996.

PALMQUIST, R.A. and SOKOLL,S.P. Visual maps of the World Wide Web: helping the user find the wayThe Reference Librarian 60, 1998,49-60.

RORVIG, M.E. WILCOX, M.E. Visual access tools for special collections. Information Technology and Libraries 16(3), September 1997,99-108.

SMALL, D. Navigating large bodies of text. IBM Systems Journal 35(3&4), 1996,514-525.

TUFTE, E.R. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, Connecticut, Graphics Press, 1990.

WHITE, H.D. and MCCAIN, K.W. Visualization of literatures. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 32, 1997,99-168.

WILLIAMS, J.G., SOCHATS, K.M. and MORSE, E. Visualization. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 30, 1995,161-207.

YOUNG, P. Three Dimensional Information Visualisation. Technical report, Computer Science Technical Report 12/96, Department of Computer Science, University of Durham, Durham, UK, November 1, 1996.

ZUBEREC, S.E. Visualization of Text Based Information. Thesis (M.A. Sci.), University of Toronto, 1994.

The Big Picture(sm): Visual Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases is a clearinghouse of projects, research, products and services that describe or apply information visualization technologies for enhancing use and access to Web and selected non-Web databases, notably MARC and bibliographic records. Selected significant reports, papers, and articles are also provided for each profiled activity. The clearinghouse is arranged by the name of the university, corporation, or other organization with which the principal investigator of a project is affiliated. A general bibliography of applicable works is also provided.
As time and opportunity permit, additional projects, research, products and services will be profiled within this collection.
The Big Picture(sm) is compiled and maintained by Gerry McKiernan, A.B., M.S., Curator, CyberStacks(sm), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, and Science and Technology Librarian, Science and Technology Department, Iowa State University Library, and Peter J. Wasilko, Esq., J.D., LL.M., founder of The Invisible College of the Future.

March 21, 1999

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~CYBERSTACKS/BigPic.htm